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The High Priest of Amun Parennefer

 
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Rozette
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PostPosted: Mon Sep 12, 2005 1:01 pm    Post subject: The High Priest of Amun Parennefer Reply with quote

The High Priest of Amun Parennefer

KAMPP, Friederike, and Karl Joachim SEYFRIED, Eine Rückkehr nach Theben, Antike Welt, Mainz 26 (1995), 325-342. (ill. incl. colours, plans).


The tomb of the High Priest of Amun, Parennefer, was discovered north of Dra Abu el-Naga in 1989 (cf. AEB 94.0723, where the number -162- is to be substituted for TT 162). The tomb can be dated by a cartouche of Horemheb executed over one of Tutankhamun. Although the tomb has suffered much damage by modern robbers, it is an important source for the period immediately following the Amarna age, the more so since it is located in Thebes. Both in its architecture and its decoration it presents remarkable parallels to the royal tomb at Amarna. A striking example is the depiction of animals greeting the rising sun, an obvious illustration to a well-known passage from Akhnaton’s hymn to the sun. In the tomb of Parennefer it represents a conscious attempt to assimilate the theology of Amarna to classical conceptions.



KAMPP, Friederike, Vierter Vorbericht über die Arbeiten des Ägyptologischen Instituts der Universität Heidelberg in thebanischen Gräbern der Ramessidenzeit, MDAIK 50 (1994), 175-188. (fig., plans, pl.).


Fourth preliminary report on the activities of the Theban Ramesside Tombs Project of Heidelberg, which concentrated on an area at Dra Abu el-Naga-North. The large tomb TT 162 of the High Priest of Amun Parennefer (pA-rn-nfr), provided with a pyramid and situated above a range of saff-tombs from the late-XVIIth/early XVIIIth Dynasty, was excavated. The tomb has a remarkable portico construction with columns and a court in front of the facade. The author then describes the interior and reconstructs its history of use, destruction (fire) and plundering. Owing to the damages the decoration is preserved only for about one third. A scene on the post of the entrance door shows pA-rn-nfr/wnn-nfr in the company of a hymn to the setting sun, the enigmatic text of which is given here in transliteration and translation. The following scenes are described: banquet, the Nile voyage; the shrine with three deities and the deified Amenhotep I and Ahmose-Nefertari.

I know that TT188 Parennefer and Amarna Parennefer tomb 7 is the same person.

TT 188 Parennefer : one of the few Theban tombs to be carved and decorated solely during the early years of Akhenaten, parennefer was the pedagogue of Amenhotep IV .

Amarna South Tombs number 7 Parennefer : Royal craftsman, Washer of hands of his Majesty.


Owned this official three tombs ? Or is Parennefer TT162 the High Priest of Amun under Tutankhamun and Horemheb someone else.
Because this tomb TT 162 in its archicture and its decoration it presents remarkable parallels to the royal tomb in Amarna.
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PostPosted: Mon Sep 12, 2005 3:56 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I remember reading somewhere that Parennefer was also a steward of Queen Tiye at Malakata.
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 14, 2005 4:14 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Very Happy This Parennefer is a new guy for me, and it was great to read of him as I've often wondered who was the First Prophet of Amun after Amarna.
I had a big gap from May/a (then MeryRe/MeryNeith under Akhenaten) through to Nebneteru of Seti I's reign.

Could'nt find any more info on this Parennefer with a google search. Just this from the Petrie Museum

I don't know if this Parennefer is the same as the Amarna and TT188 Parennefer (son of Aupia Chief Craftsman), it would be quite a career change from Overseer of the Craftsmen etc to High Priest. Amarna Parennefer would have been responsible for implimenting much of the amarna style and was very close to Akhenaten - I'm not really sure he would have been quite the person for the job of First prophet of Amun- but if he was that would surely make him the mother-of-all turncoats! But then Aye managed pretty well post-Amarna (for a while anyways).
Its certainly not uncommon for there to be more than one person of the same name in high positions at the same time. Perhaps he's a relative, certain names did run in the family.

Do you know if TT188 was a used tomb? I don't have much in my notes.
Pity they don't say either in the quotes you posted if TT162 was a used tomb or not. Those reports would be very interesting to read. It sounds a very grand final resting place, fitting for someone of his position. Such a pity about the damage.

Maahes wrote:
Quote:
I remember reading somewhere that Parennefer was also a steward of Queen Tiye at Malakata.

Could you be thinking of Huya maybe? He was the Steward for Tiye and was buried in one of only a couple of used tombs at Amarna (Nth tomb 1). He was also Overseer of the Royal harem and Overseer of the Double Treasury of (GRW) Tiye.
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 14, 2005 6:32 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

KAMPP-SEYFRIED, Friederike, Die Verfemung des Namens pA-rn-nfr, in: Stationen. R. Stadelmann gewidmet, 303-319. (pl.).


Inscriptional evidence from the tomb of the High Priest of Amon Parennefer attests to the replacement of this name by wnn-nfr. Though at first sight thought to be a case of usurpation by another High Priest of Amon, this was not the explanation, since the religious texts in the tomb give the name pA-rn-nfr wnn-nfr, with erasion and replacement of the first name. A dossier of 19 persons bearing the name Parennefer is drawn up, and the name ("He with Beautiful Name" or "He of The Beautiful Name") is discovered to have been used in the Amarna Age in reference to the king, "He (servant) of The Perfect Name". This explains why the name was erased and why children were no longer given the name. At least three bearers of the name suffered the fate, which, most remarkably, did not happen during the post-Amarna restoration, bu
t in the early reign of Ramses II, who had a keen interest in orthodoxy.

This is the only information that I found about Parennefer TT162
Interesting link from the Petrie Museum. Very Happy
I did some search , but could'nt find info about human remains in TT162.


I found this about TT 188
'A Summary of the Human Remains from TT 188' by George R. Milmer ' Human Osteology. I did a search but I don't find it on the internet.

http://www.hawaii.edu/calendar/uh/2005/03/31/20001112205431.html?filter=none

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parennefer

Do you have more information about vizier Usermont, who held office under Tut ?
I found some information about him, you will find it under "Was Aye Vizier in Amarna" .

Quote Sesen: Those reports would be very interesting to read.

I love to read those reports .They are so informative.

I have an excavation report from the Australian Centre for Egyptology about Tutankhamuns tutors.
A Tomb from the Reign of Tutankhamun at Akhmim. Very interesting.

I have also The tomb of the Three Foreign Wives of Tuthmosis III by Christine Lilyquist.
Archaeological excavations 1988 by the MMA (this one is new), it was very expensive, but I'am glad I have it.
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PostPosted: Thu Sep 15, 2005 7:04 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

This is really interesting.Very Happy

So we have as First prophets of Amun:


Parennefer/Wennefer under Tutankhamen/Horemheb
Nebwa (son of Ay/Huy and Mutnefert?) [He's first prophet of Amun-Re at Paju] under Horemheb. (I'm not sure if he's not HP at some smaller temple?)
Nebneteru Tenry under Seti I (father of the Vizier Paser)
Nebwenenef installed as HP of Amun in first year of Ramses II
Wennefer, son of Minhotep and Maya, under Ramses II (year 12 - or 15?)

There's also the brother of the treasurer Maya, who is named Parennefer.

If Maya is really the May who had a tomb in Amarna, and hence already had a position of influence, then his brother may have remained in a position of influence as well.

Parennefer, brother of Maya, I have found with the titles overseer of the bowmen and master of the horses. Indicating a more military career.
On the other hand Maya seems to have moved from a more militaristic to civilian position, so who knows?
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 16, 2005 3:35 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

In Porter and Moss TT162 is said to belong to Kenamun, Mayor of the Southern City and Overseer of the granary of Amun (dated to the 18th dynasty - no precise time period is given).

Does this mean that this tomb has been reassigned then?

I did find info about another tomb that may be of interest: TT50.
This tomb belongs to a Divine Father of Amun-Re from the time of Horemheb named Neferhotep.

Neferhotep is the son of Amenemonet (Divine father of Amun) and Takhat (Chief of the Harem of Amun).
If I read it correctly then Neferhotep and his wife Rennutet had a son named Parennefer who is also Divine Father of Amun.
The text shows Parennefer being congratulated by his father and this is dated to year 3.

Looking up "divine father" though it appears from the autobiography of Bekenkhonsu for instance that this is one of the lower ranks of the priesthood:

"I passed four years in extreme childhood.
I passed twelve years as a youth, while I was chief of the training stable of King Menmare.
I acted as priest of Amon, during four years.
I acted as divine father of Amon, during twelve years.
I acted as third prophet of Amon, during fifteen years.
I acted as second prophet of Amon, during twelve years.
He favoured me, he distinguished me, because of my rare merit. He appointed me to be High Priest of Amon during twenty-seven years.
"

So, someone may be divine father earlier in ones career? Here it's age 20-32 it seems.

Just thought I would share the info Very Happy
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 16, 2005 9:58 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Interesting info about TT 50 Neferhotep Very Happy

I did some search and I found this: the "Entertainment Song" of Neferhotep (TT50)

The harpist of the Divine Father of Amun Neferhotep the justified.

You can find it on page 20

http://homepage.mac.com/kasia_s/SzpakTexts.pdf
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 16, 2005 1:49 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote Anneke : Does this mean that this tomb has been reassigned then?

Strange that they didn't mentioned this in their article about Parennefer.
They mentioned that the tomb was discovered in 1989, I did some search but I didn't find no explanation. Do you know when the tomb of Kenamun was discovered? Maybe there is a mistake with the numbers in the article.
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 17, 2005 12:13 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Porter and Moss mention that the tomb is located in Dra Abu el-Naga. It is listed as inaccessible. The wife is named as Mut-tuy and the name comes from a cone.

Some of the descriptions go all the way back to Daressy (1895).

It may be that the Kenamun mentioned as the owner of the tomb just happens to appear in a relief and was mistaken for the tomb owner?

The description of TT162 is limited to a hall and a passageway. If I had to make an educated guess, then I would say that the tomb may have been further excavated and that the owner was determined to be Parennefer.

The hall shows among others the arrival of Syrian freight ships with three rows of market scenes, and Syrians bringing produce including two humped bulls, bull's head vase and statuette of a bull.

Another scene the deceased and wife with a monkey, goose and dog under her chair. There is also a scene showing a son as sem-priest offering to the deceased and the wife with a scribe's outfit under her chair.

Another scene shows the deceased with two men offering a bouquet and birds to the King.

In the passage the deceased is shown with parents, and elsewhere the deceased and family offer to Osiris.

The description also mentions a funeral procession to Anubis and Hathor, including an Abydos pilgrimage with boats containing horses.

Some of these descriptions are rather intriguing if Parennefer/Wennefer was HP of Amun during Tutankhamen and the early part of Horemheb's reign.

Considering the gods and goddesses mentioned and the pilgrimage to Abydos, it sounds like they returned to orthodoxy in somewhat of a hurry Laughing
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 17, 2005 11:53 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Anneke,

Thank you for the information about TT 162.

Rozette
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 17, 2005 7:50 pm    Post subject: HMM Reply with quote

Perhaps he was given the name by someone that fell out of favor?
Or perhaps some new position obliged him to adopt a name with more humility?
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 17, 2005 8:32 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Both names Parennefer and Unnufer (Wennefer) are used in later times, so I don't think it has anything to do with names or people out of favor.

The use of other names, sometimes called beautiful names, is not that uncommon throughout egyptian history.

A steward of Amenhotep III was called Amenemhet, also called Surero for instance. Amenhotep called Huy was Viceroy of Tutankhamen, etc.

I don't know for sure but my impression is that people may have been named after relatives and that some of these nicknames were used to distinguish different people with the same given name.

Although there seems to be an abundance of people called Unnufer Very Happy especially during the Ramesside period.
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PostPosted: Mon Sep 19, 2005 3:30 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Anneke wrote:
Quote:
I did find info about another tomb that may be of interest: TT50.
This tomb belongs to a Divine Father of Amun-Re from the time of Horemheb named Neferhotep.

I was just looking at your list Anneke (I love it by the way!) of the Theban Tombs, at TT50. You mention there that there is a scene showing (and I quote) "Maya, Overseer of the Treasury, as Fanbearer, followed by the govenors of Upper and Lower Egypt. Neferhotep and Parennefer (?son and Divine Father of Amun) are congratuated by father.
It just pricked my attention, the image of Maya being there, as like you said he does have a brother called Parennefer and Neferhotep's son as Parennefer too.
Maya's brother Parennefer must have predeceased Maya as it was Maya's half brother Nahuher (Royal Scribe, High Steward of the Ramesseum) who completed the funeral arrangements.
I'd love to be able to tie in the two families (Maya's and Neferhotep's) but there's not much to go on....as usual Wink

The mother of Neferhotep as Chief of the Harem of Amun, must have been a lady of great standing, and I expect from an equally good family background. She must have taken the title soon after Taemwadjsy (who held it after Tuya) and sometime before Isis (wife of Wennefer, High Priest of Amun and son of Minhotep and Maya).
I think, or rather speculate, that this Isis is the daughter of Prophet Nakhtmin (First prophet of Min and Isis)and Isis Muttay from the reign of Aye.
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