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Nubian Pharaohs

 
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anneke
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 21, 2004 8:21 pm    Post subject: Nubian Pharaohs Reply with quote

After their Libyan couter parts I think it's only fair to give the Nubians their own thread.

The 25th dynasty is quite interesting as well.
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anneke
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 21, 2004 8:25 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

This is a list of the rulers and a list of relatives:


Alara, King c. 785-760 BC
+ Queen Kasaqa, Wife of King Alara Mother of Tabiry


1. Kashta (770-750 BC) + Pebatma chief wife, mother of Piankhi
Queen Shepenwepet I, wife of Kashta, mother of Queen Aqaluqa?
Children include Piye, Shabaka and Amenridis I, God’s Wife of Amun

2. Piye (= Piankhy) (750-712 BC)+ Queen Aqaluqa, known from statue, mother of Taharqa?
Queen Abalo=Abar, mother of Taharqa? From Stela at Kawa.Same as above?
Queen Peksater, mother of Shebitku?
Queen Kenensat= Khensa, Wife and Sister(?) of King Piye daughter of Alara and Kasaqa
Queen Neferukekashta
Queen Tabiry, Wife of King Piye Daughter of Alara and Kasaqa
and Children include Shebitku (King), Taharqa (King), Qalhata (Queen), Shepenwepet II, God’s Wife of Amun

3. Shabaka (712-698 BC)+ Queen Tabekenamun, King’s daughter and King’s sister
Queen Mesbat, probably mother of High Priest Harenmakhet
Queen Qalhata, mother of Tanutamen. She was sister of Taharqa, daughter of Piankhi.
Shabaka was the elder brother of Piye.

4. Shebitku (698-690 BC) + ?
Shebitku was a son of Piye.

5. Taharqa (690-664 BC) + Queen Takahatamani, sister/wife
+ Queen Atakhebasken (from shabti), sister/wife
+Queen Naparaye, sister/wife of King Taharqo Daughter of King Piye
+ Queen Tabaketenamun (from shabti), sister/wife
+ consort Salka?
+ Queen Amendukhat?
His daughter Amenridis II succeeded as God’s Wife of Amun

6. Tanutamen (=Tanwetamani) (664-657 BC)+ Gereirkhenty, chief wife,
Another wife was Queen Pi(-ankh)-arty = Piye-iry (depicted in a stela)
Tanutamen was the son of Queen Qalhata, who was a daughter of Piye.
There are statues of a queen Malakaya = Maloqoye from this period

Aspelta + Queen Artaha
+ Queen Asata
+ Henuttakhebit, Wife of King Aspelta daughter of King Anlamani Mother of King Aramatelqo
+ Queen Piye-her
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Segereh
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 1:48 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

King Alara (785-760 BC) was the strongest and most ambitious Nubian king since 1700 BC. He united Upper Nubia, consisting of the southern region of Kush and the northern region of Wawat. By the beginning of the 21st dynasty these parts had been lost for Egyptian rule, soon after the power struggle between the Viceroy of Kush and the High Priest of Thebes (Panehesy and Herihor). Ever since, from around 1080 BC, the Nubian region had fallen into smaller chiefdoms, either loyal to Egypt or completely independent. Not much is known from this period, which lasted until around 780 BC when king Alara founded the Napatan Dynasty and restored Kushite power over the entire region. He’s not known to have had any surviving sons, but a daughter Tabira seems to have been born from Alara’s wife Kasaki. This Tabira later married king Piye.



Alara was succeeded by his brother Kashta (760-747 BC), who became the first ruler of Napatan Kush to try conquering Egypt. He’s the one who really began to take over Egyptian rule from the feeble last Libyan pharaohs, starting the 25th dynasty and the Kushite domination over Egypt. His influence over Egyptian state affairs becomes obvious from the moment he causes his daughter Amenirdis I to be adopted by Shepenwepet I, daughter of the Lybian king Osorkon III and Divine Adoratrice of Amon. His power didn’t stretch out to the Delta and large parts of Lower Egypt though, where small princedoms stayed independent from Kushite rule. Other children of Kashta were his successor Piye, Abara, Peksater and probably Shabako. One of his at least two wives was his own sister Pebatma. Kashta carried the royal nomen of “Maat-Re”.



Amenirdis holds in her left hand a flower and in her other hand a menit-collar. The cartouches of the God’s Wife are inscribed on the base in front of her right foot.
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 1:50 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Kashta was succeeded by his son Piye (Piankhy) (747-716 BC) who conquered almost all of Egypt and ruled as a genuine pharaoh until his death. But first he had to fight Tefnakhte, the prince of Sais (740-727 BC). Tefnakhte succeeded in a few years to unify almost all the Delta-nomes, becoming more powerful than any of the kings of the 22d and 23d dynasties. He headed a new-found coalition of princes of Delta (Osorkon IV, Iuput II, Sheshonq V) and attacked Hermopolis, which remained under the rule of Nimlot III, but with whom he finally made an alliance. After failing to conquer Thebes and Herakleopolis, Tefnakhte escaped from Piye and found refuge in the swamps of the Delta. He adopted a royal title in 727 BC after compelling the Kushites to retreat from the Delta. Subsequently Tefnakhte consolidated his rule after Piye retreated to Napata. He died shortly after though (around 717 BC) and his successor Bakenrenef seems not to have ruled over the Delta region very long as well. After the death of Bakenrenef, the Delta as well fell into the hands of the Nubian kings, who were now truly Kings of Both Lands. In 716 BC Piye died after a reign of over thirty years and was buried in an Egyptian style pyramid tomb at el-Kurru, accompanied by a number of horses, which were greatly prized by the Nubians of the Napatan period. Piye appears to have been married to a certain Aqaluqa, his half-sister Peksater, his niece Tabira and the rather unknown Abale and Kensa. He was father to Taharqa, Shabatako and the Divine Adoratrice Shepenwepet II. Piye took on the royal nomen of “Men-kheper-Re“.
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 1:50 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Piye was succeeded by his brother though, King Shabaka (translated as “Great Cat“) (716-702 BC), another son of Kashta. His rule was the Golden Age for the Nubian domination of Egypt. Throughout his reign Shabaka made many additions to Egyptian temples, such as those at Memphis, Abydos and Esna. After suppressing a last revolt of northern princes under Bakenrenef’s lead, he’s supposed to have burned the king at a stake (according to Manetho). Since then he ruled over entire Egypt. Face to face with the still growing power of the Assyrians, he seems to have followed the policy of his predecessors, which was mainly based upon intrigues and making political alliances. Pharaoh Shabaka has been supposed to have handed Yamani, the exiled king of Ashdod, over to the Assyrians. He also appointed his son Horemakhet as High Priest of Amon at Thebes, although the real power in that region seems to have been in the hands of Shabaka’s sister Amenirdis I, whose mortuary temple and tomb are at Medinet Habu. Shabaka took on the royal name of “Nefer-ka-Re”.



Statue of Prince Horemakhet (701-690 BC), son of King Shabaka and High Priest of Amon in Thebes during the reign of his father and his two successors.
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 1:51 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

King Shabataka (702-690 BC) was the successor to Shabaka and a son of the late king Piye. His policy against the Assyrians was entirely more aggressive than that of his predecessors. He headed the army which set out in support of the threatened Jerusalem. In 701 BC the anti-Assyrian coalition was defeated though by Sanherib at Eltekeh in contemporary Palestine. Hezekiah of Judah surrendered at this time to Assyria and paid heavy tribute to avoid ravage of Jerusalem. The Old Testament suggests that a plague in the Assyrian army saved both Egyptians and Hebrews from complete defeat. Herodotus in his turn says that the retreat of the Assyrians was due to swarms of mice who ate up their weaponries. The building activities of Shabataka were most pronounced at Thebes (a chapel by the Holy Lake at Karnak and reliefs at Luxor) but he also raised several monuments in Memphis and Kawa. He was married to Kalhat and Arti and is supposed to be the father to Tanwetamani. His royal nomen was “Djed-kaoe-Re”.
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 1:52 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

King Taharqa (690-664 BC) succeeded his brother Shabataka, as the son of Piye and Abale. He is regarded as a ruler who re-united the Land after the defeat against the Assyrians by Shabataka, which would have influenced internal rebellions. He is also regarded as the king who lost the entire land to the Assyrians shortly after .



Taharqa's 26 year reign stands out from any other in the Third Intermediate Period by the extent of the building program he implemented in the first sixteen years of his reign, and the extent of the fighting against the Assyrians in the later years. Taharqa invested considerable resources into celebrating the glory of Amon, first in his native Kingdom of Napata, later in his Egyptian territories as well. Respectful of Egypt's cultural heritage, Taharqa set out to draw on the traditions of the Old and Middle Kingdoms, using new materials (previous Intermediate Period cash-strapped kings had taken to pilfering stone from older buildings) to restore and build anew. In the kingdom of Napata, he built in every important site: Sanam, Napata, Abu Dom, and Kawa. In Kawa particularly, he rebuilt and expanded a temple complex that became the second most important in Kush. In Egypt, it’s at Karnak that he made the greatest impact, thanks to the man he installed as Mayor of the City: the great Nubian Mentuemhet, a man who took an extraordinary pride out of his title as a fourth prophet to Amon. At Karnak, the Sacred Lake structures, the kiosk in the first court, and the colonnades at the temple entrance are all owed to Taharqa and Mentuemhet. Memphis, the capital of the Old Kingdom and royal residence of Kushite kings also received much attention, respecting the importance of Ptah, despite the Kushite's devotion to Amun.



Prince Mentuemhet of Thebes (713-664 BC)

Taharqa also warred against the Assyrians in Sydon around 677 BC which caused Esarhaddon’s campaigns against Lower Egypt in the following years. In 674 BC, King Esarhaddon of Assyria, angered over the Egyptian interference with his vassal states in Palestine and attacked Egypt. Taharqa swiftly rebuked their advance, and caused the invaders to retreat. But another three years later, in 671 BC, the Assyrians try again and succeed. The Delta subsequently falls into Assyrian possession while Taharqa escapes to Thebes. The Assyrians take Memphis, capture the royal queen and the crown prince and establish native puppet-chieftains and their representatives in all key positions. In Sais, a certain prince Nekau (Necho) swears allegiance to the Assyrians and his son is sent to Assyria for political training. As soon as the Assyrians leave the country to their Egyptian vassals, Taharqa drives his forces north again and regains full control of Egypt. In 669 BC Taharqa would have restored his rule over the complete Delta-region. In 667 BC, the Assyrians come back though, pushing much further south this time.

Taharqa flees to Napata this time and the Assyrians once again get Egyptian governors to pledge allegiance to Assyria. When they leave again, several local kings and governors plot to bring Taharqa back. But this time, the Assyrians squelch the insurrection by having all plotters assassinated. The only surviving Egyptian is Nekau, who had prudently abstained from participating in the plot while his son (the future Psamtik I) was still in the hands of the Assyrians. Taharqa now was betrayed a second time by the alien chiefs of the Delta and abandoned his hopes of ever regaining Egypt. Mentuemhet, the governor of Thebes, remained loyal to Taharqa, as did the Divine Adoratrice of Amon.
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 1:53 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote



Only known statue of Tanwetamani, from the Sudan National Museum at Janrut.

King Tanwetamani (664-653 BC) (also called Takahatamani or Tanutamon with the royal nomen “Ba-ka-Re“), Taharqa’s successor, was the last Nubian King to attempt to re-take Egypt. By this time the Kushite kings only controlled the area between the third and fourth cataracts though. He was probably Shabataka’s son and after Assyria left Egypt again in 663 BC, he invaded the lands, just like his uncle (Taharqa) and grandfather (Piye) had done. He ruled both Egypt and Nubia for some eight years. Then the Assyrians attacked Thebes, killed many of the people, and looted all the holy places. From this point on, the Kushite kings never again entered Egypt. Tanwetamani continued his rule in Kush and by 653 BC the Nubian 25th Dynasty dominance over Egypt was at an absolute end, as was the old dynastic culture the Nubians tried to restore. The Assyrians appointed Psamtik I as a pharaoh and started the 26th dynasty. He married an Ethiopian princess, settled Greek mercenaries in permanent camps near Bubastis and herby offended the warrior caste greatly, causing them to desert in great numbers to the Nubians.
Both Psamtik I and his father Necho I of Sais were originally involved with an intrigue associated with the Kushite ruler Taharqa against Assyria, but were then captured, held and indoctrinated by the Assyrians. Shortly after the Assyrians left Psamtik I in control, the Assyrians suffered internal political turmoil, giving the pharaoh a chance to seize actual power in Egypt. The Assyrians were forced to let go of Egypt under pressures from Psamtik I
and their internal problems. The new pharaoh established military garrisons at the Nubian border to prevent any invasions from the Kushites again. His successor Psamtik II would later on invade Upper Nubia, faced with the threat of yet another Kushite invasion. He defeated the Kushites, forcing the kings to retreat further south to the city of Meroe.
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 1:55 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

It is a very tricky thing to glue genealogies on the kings of the Third Intermediate Period. An example: try figuring out what they say at
http://www.kent.net/DisplacedDynasties/Shabaka.htm.
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 1:57 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I'm very much starting to like posting threads like the original ones on the Vizier, War and replying like this one here. Smile
Hope u guys feel the same, but I know it's a lot to read.
Believe me, I know. Smile
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 2:32 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Can anyone help me on where Alara came from exactly?
In a small milennium he seemed to have been the only great Kushite warlord.
There must've been others, no?
Even under Egyptian rule: rebels, great chiefs, ...
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 23, 2004 9:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hadn't yet noticed nobody responds to this thread. Crying or Very sad

anneke's Morkot wrote:
The period between the end of the Viceregal administration during the last years of the 20th Dynasty, and the first datable inscriptions of the 25th Dynasty in the 8th century is frequently treated as a 'Dark Age', and the apparent "lack" of archaeological material is balanced by a corresponding increase in the use of colourful language.


Nubian history during the Third Intermediate Period has been discussed relative to one of two major issues: either the collapse of Viceregal administration, or the rise of the kingdom of Napata, its conquest of Egypt and the rule of the 25th Dynasty. These two issues have nearly always been viewed as separate and unrelated phenomena. Discussion of this period has been Egypto-centric, concerning itself with those problems directly related to Egypt, and also using Egyptian type evidence.

So, in periods where there are no large stone monuments or hieroglyphic texts there is assumed to be some sort of "Dark Age". At best the assumption is that the region "regressed" to a tribal level. This view is particularly applied to the part of the Nubian Nile Valley between Dongola and Napata (Wawat and Kush), the area under Egyptian control during the New Kingdom.

Upper Nubia was relinquished from Egyptian control surely by the end of the end of the 20th Dynasty. It's been argued that the Viceregal administration functioned during its latest phase from Thebes, or became the leader of an independent Lower Nubian "state". Goedicke and Trigger apparently suggest that Upper Nubia was in the control of local princes from the end of the 20th Dynasty or contemporaneously with the 21st Dynasty.

Now I wonder if these local princes in the beginning could've been former Egyptian officials. After Panehesy the Egyptian control over Upper Nubia seems blurry. Maybe the Egyptian deputies took over and formed their own petty kingdoms? Still, this doesn't answer where Alara suddenly came from.
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PostPosted: Sat Jun 26, 2004 3:05 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
Hadn't yet noticed nobody responds to this thread.


Couldn't get a word in edgewise.... Laughing Cool

About Alara:

Not much is really known about him. He was probably a "Chieftain" instead of Pharaoh, but was considered as the anscestor of this dynasty.

Some have conjectured that he may have been
Lord of the Two Lands, Usermaetre-setepen-Re, Lord of Might, Ary-mery-Amun.
The title Lord of Might is rare after the Libyan period.
He is sometimes referred to as Ary, which is close to Alara.

Alara was regarded as the foounder of the Kushite State and is mentioned in inscriptions of several later Kings.
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 28, 2004 12:41 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I don't know much about this period in Egyptian history, but this really is all very interesting.
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