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Graves and burial customs of commoners during the NK?

 
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Mennefer
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 20, 2013 11:07 pm    Post subject: Graves and burial customs of commoners during the NK? Reply with quote

I have found it difficult to find much information regarding commoners' graves and burial customs from the New Kingdom. Of course we have the graves of the Deir el Medina workmen and their families, but how representative are they really of ordinary people in general?

Are there any known graves belonging to e.g. craftsmen outside the Deir el Medina context? Were commoners buried in wooden coffins and with grave goods, or were these reserved exclusively for the elite? Idea
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Mennefer
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 20, 2013 7:00 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Is there at least any suggested books or articles on the topic that someone might know of?
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neseret
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 20, 2013 8:12 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Mennefer wrote:
Is there at least any suggested books or articles on the topic that someone might know of?


There are a multitude of works out there about non-royal graves of the New Kingdom. You just have to scope them out, usually by tomb number or name (I would try using a reference like the Topgraphical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings series to get an idea of what's been written about non-royal tombs). For example, the Rock Tombs of Amarna series by de Garies-Davies (1903-08 ) concerned itself with the noble tombs at Amarna.

I'd start with this, as a beginning point:

Bomann, A. H. 1991. The Private Chapel in Ancient Egypt. A Study of the Chapels in the Workmen's Village at El Amarna with Special Reference to Deir el Medina and Other Sites. Studies in Egyptology. London: Kegan Paul International.

Graefe, E. 1977. Ein wiederaufgetauchtes Relieffragment aus dem Grabe des Maya in Saqqara. MDAIK 33: 31-3.

Grajetzki, W. Burial Customs in Ancient Egypt: Life and Death for Rich and Poor. Duckworth Egyptology. London: Duckworth.

Kákosy, L. 1997. Funerary Beliefs in the Late New Kingdom. In Unk., Ed. L'impero ramesside. Convegno internazionale in onore di Sergio Donadoni.: 95-9. Quaderno. Vicino Oriente 1. Rome: Universitā degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza".

kitchen, K. A. 1979. Memphite tomb-chapels in the New Kingdom and later. In Görg, Manfred and Edgar Pusch (eds), Festschrift Elmar Edel: 12. März 1979: 272-284. Bamberg: M. Görg.

McClymont, A. 2012. Hathor in 'spheres of belonging': the goddess in non-royal tombs of New Kingdom Thebes. The Bulletin of the Australian Centre for Egyptology 23: 45-70.

Meskell, L. 2002. Private Life in the New Kingdom. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Sadek, A. I. 1988. Popular Religion in Egypt During the New Kingdom. Hildesheimer Ägyptologische Beiträge 27. Hildesheim: Gerstenberg.

Zivie, A. 1990. Découverte ā Saqqarah: Le Vizir Oublié. Paris: Seuil.

Grajetzki also suggests:

d'Auria, S., et al. 1988. Mummies and Magic: The Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. (Mainly New Kingdom)

Ikram, S. and A. Dodson. 1998. The Mummy in Ancient Egypt: Equipping the Dead for Eternity. London: Thames and Hudson.

Kanawati, N. 2001. The Tomb and Beyond: Burial Customs of Egyptian Officials. Warminster: Aris and Phillips, Ltd.

Seipel, W. 1989. Ägypten: Götter, Gräber und die Kunst. 4000 Jahre Jenseitsglaube. Linz.

Taylor, J. 2001. Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt. London/Chicago: British Museum Press/University of Chicago.

HTH.
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Lutz
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 20, 2013 9:07 pm    Post subject: Re: Graves and burial customs of commoners during the NK? Reply with quote

Mennefer wrote:
... information regarding commoners' graves and burial customs from the New Kingdom. Of course we have the graves of the Deir el Medina workmen and their families, but how representative are they really of ordinary people in general? ...

In addition to the recommended by Neseret here an article I find interesting at the topic (beside some others in German, like Stephan Johannes Seidlmayer : Vom Sterben der kleinen Leute - Tod und Bestattung in der sozialen Grundschicht am Ende des Alten Reiches. - In: Grab und Totenkult im Alten Ägypten - FS Assmann. - München : Beck, 2003. - pp. 60 - 74, about the cemetery on Elephantine):

John Baines and Peter Lacovara : Burial and the dead in ancient Egyptian society - Respect, formalism, neglect. - In: Journal of Social Archaeology 2-1. - 2002. - pp. 5 - 36.

The articles of this journal are also online. I had access over the Berlin State Library and could download the PDF.

Greetings, Lutz.
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Mennefer
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 21, 2013 9:19 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thank you Neseret and Lutz, your suggestions are much appreciated. I'm particularly interested in the burial practises of the "common man", i.e. individuals from the lower stratas of society, and I'm sure to find useful information in several of the works cited.
I have been considering Grajetzki for a while, but now I think it might be worth the money to order his Burial Customs in Ancient Egypt.
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Lutz
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 21, 2013 10:51 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

The work by Wolfram Grajetzki is a good choice. He is one of the Egyptologists who have focused intensively with the living conditions of ordinary people. His "Burial Customs" is available for around 23,- €

Greetings, Lutz.
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