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Bastet

 
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Nefer-Ankhe
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 21, 2014 2:24 pm    Post subject: Bastet Reply with quote

1) How was Bastet worshipped, what were the ins and outs of worshipping Bastet? and secondly what were the values and rituals associated with Bastet?

For example, I read that cats were sacred to Bast, and to harm one was considered to be a crime against her and so very unlucky. However evidentially numerous cats were sacrificed in Egypt, presumably for Bastet?
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neseret
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 21, 2014 6:05 pm    Post subject: Re: Bastet Reply with quote

Nefer-Ankhe wrote:
1) How was Bastet worshipped, what were the ins and outs of worshipping Bastet? and secondly what were the values and rituals associated with Bastet?

For example, I read that cats were sacred to Bast, and to harm one was considered to be a crime against her and so very unlucky. However evidentially numerous cats were sacrificed in Egypt, presumably for Bastet?


It is thought that Bastet started off in the Old Kingdom as a leonine goddess, and was known for her ferocity, but by the Middle Kingdom, the ferocious qualities had been assumed by Sekhmet, as a goddess of pestilence, war, and ferocity, while Bastet had assumed the gentler qualities of a domesticated cat, such there appeared a phrase "to rage like Sekhmet, to be as friendly as Bastet."

In general Bastet was associated with love, sexual pleasure, and maternity/pregnancy (and by association, with music, which is used to soothe a pregnant woman while giving birth). Information on her cult as practised in Bubastis is sketchy, but you are correct that cats (usually kittens) were often sacrificed in her temple as votive offerings). This is no one publication which describes her worship, cult and so on, so I will give you the lot that has been written about her, and it will be up to you to research, if interested:

Abou-Ghazi, D. 1963. Die Katze in Religion und Leben im alten Agypten. Translated by Diethard Nickel. Das Altertum 9/1: 7-16.

Boussac, H. 1915. Le culte de la déesse Bast dans l'Italie méridionale et particulièrement à Pompei. RecTrav 37: 28-32.

Brandl, H. 2007. Unbekannte Schätze: zur Ikonographie der Göttin Bastet im Museum von Herriat Raznah. Isched 2007/1: 13-19.

Bresciani, E. 2007. Il percorso di una dea: Bastet, da leonessa a gatta d'amore. In D'Amicone, E. and E. Fontanella (eds), Nefer: la donna nell'antico Egitto. Milano, Palazzo Reale 27 gennaio - 9 aprile 2007: 84-87. Milano: F. Motta.

___________. 2006. Il percorso di una dea: Bastet, da leonessa a gatta d'amore. In Guidotti, M.-C. (ed.), Le donne dei faraoni: il mondo femminile nell'antico Egitto: 21-24. Milano: Museum.

Brugsch, H. 1863. Die fremde Aphrodite in Memphis. Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 1: 9.

Buhl, M.-L. 1959. Ægyptens hellige kat. Fra Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark (København): 51-56.

Darnell, John Coleman 1997. The apotropaic goddess in the eye. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 24: 35-48.

Engels, D. 1999. Classical Cats. The rise and fall of the sacred cat. London and New York, Routledge.

Fink, C. G. and A. H. Kopp 1939. An observation regarding the ancient Egyptian cult of Bastet. TSFFA 7 (1938-1939): 111-119.

Hickmann, Hans 1954. Dieux et déesses de la musique. Cahiers d'Histoire Égyptienne 6/1: 31-59.

Hölbl, Günther 1981. Andere ägyptische Gottheiten: Juppiter Ammon, Osiris, Osiris-Antinoos, NiI, Apis, Bubastis, Bes, Sphinx, Hermes Thot, Neotera-Problem. In M.J. Vermaseren, (ed.), Die orientalischen Religionen im Römerreich (OrRR): 157-192. Leiden: Brill.

Ivanov, S. 2003. The Aegis in ancient Egyptian art: aspects of interpretation. In Z. Hawass and L. P. Brock (eds), Egyptology at the dawn of the twenty-first century: proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Egyptologists, Cairo, 2000, 2: 332-339. Cairo/New York: American University in Cairo Press.

Jong, W. J. de 2003. De godin Bastet: een leewin of een poes? De Ibis: nieuwe serie 28/2: 42-59.

Kessler, D. 1989. Die heiligen Tiere und der König. Teil I: Beiträge zu Organisation, Kult und Theologie der spätzeitlichen Tierfriedhöfe. Ägypten und Altes Testament 16. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Koemoth, P. P. 1993. Du chat à l'uraeus "qui délimite" l'arbre de l'horizon oriental pour Rê et pour Osiris. Varia Aegyptiaca 9: 19-31.

Lange, E. 2012. Das Fest der Bastet: archäologische Spuren eines altägyptischen Mythos'. Isched 2012/2: 15-17.

Langton, N. 1925. Bast - the cat goddess. The Antiquarian Quarterly 1: 93-99.

Leclant, J. 1992. Diana Nemorensis, Isis et Bubastis. In A. B. Lloyd, ed., Studies in Pharaonic Religion and Society for Gwyn Griffiths: 251-257. Occasional Publications 8. London: EES.

Longhi, Olivier 2007. Le culte du chat en Égypte ancienne. Histoire Antique 31: 16-21.

Malek, J. 2001. A lioness at peace: two aspects of the goddess Bastet. Boletín de la Asociación Española de Egiptología 11: 141-148.

_______. 1993. The Cat in Ancient Egypt. London, London:British Museum Press for the Trustees of the British Museum.

Neal, J. 2010. Life and death of the sacred cats of Bastet. KMT 21/2: 79-82.

Neal, J. 2006. The pietistic role and precipitated demise of the sacred cat in Ancient Egypt. Revista de la Sociedad Uruguaya de Egiptología 23: 13-21.

Quaegebeur, Jan 1991. Le culte de Boubastis-Bastet en Égypte gréco-romaine. In L. Delvaux and E. Warmenbol (eds), Les divins chats d'Égypte: un air subtil, un dangereux parfum: 117-127. Leuven: Peeters.

Rosenow, D. 2008. The great temple of Bastet at Bubastis. Egyptian Archaeology 32: 11-13.

Rosenow, D.2008. The naos of 'Bastet, lady of the shrine' from Bubastis. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 94: 247-266.

Satzinger, Helmut 1997. The scarab on the cat's forehead. In J. Aksamit, M. Dolińska, A.Majewska, A. Niwiński, S. Rzepka, and Z. Szafrański (eds), Essays in honour of Prof. Dr. Jadwiga Lipińska: 399-407. Warsaw: National Museum.

Scandone Matthiae, G. 1993. L'Occhio del Sole; le divinità feline femminile dell'Egitto faraonico. Studi epigrafici e linguistici sul Vicino Oriente antico (Verona) 10: 10-19.

Selim, M. O. 1997. Die Stadt Per Bastet und ihre Tempel. In C. Tietze, (ed.), Tell Basta: Geschichte einer Grabung: 1-37. Potsdam: Universität Potsdam, Historisches Institut.

Siegmann, R. 1998. Die Katze im alten Ägypten. Swiss Vet 15/6: 5-10.

Vachala, B. 1976. V sídle kočičí bohynĕ Bastety. [In Russian] Nový Orient 31/10: 299-301.

[UNKNOWN] 1989. De Katten van de Farao's. "4000 jaar goddelijke gratie". Catalogus, 27 oktober 1989 - 25 februari 1990. Brussel, Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen,

Warmenbol, E. 1991. Bastet divine et bande dessinée. In L. Delvaux and E. Warmenbol (eds), Les divins chats d'Égypte: un air subtil, un dangereux parfum: 155-157. Leuven: Peeters.

Wit, C. de 1978. Le rôle et le sens du lion dans l'Égypte ancienne. 2nd revised ed. Luxor: Gaber Aly Hussein.

Zivie, A. 1999. Le vizir, les ministres et les chats: nouvelles decouvertes à Saqqarah. Boletín de la Asociación Española de Egiptología 9: 113-120.

Zivie, A.-P. and R. Lichtenberg 2005. The cats and the goddess Bastet. In Ikram, Salima (ed.), Divine creatures: animal mummies in ancient Egypt: 106-119. Cairo/New York: American University in Cairo Press.

HTH.
_________________
Katherine Griffis-Greenberg

Doctoral Candidate
Oriental Institute
Oriental Studies
Doctoral Programme [Egyptology]
Oxford University
Oxford, United Kingdom

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Nefer-Ankhe
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PostPosted: Sat Mar 22, 2014 12:24 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Smile Thankyou very much!
I'll be sure to go through a few of those publications.
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