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Ancient Egyptian Epigraphic Repertory

 
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Medjay Archer
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PostPosted: Fri Jun 05, 2015 3:07 am    Post subject: Ancient Egyptian Epigraphic Repertory Reply with quote

I create this very thread for the sake of:

    Ask questions related to epigraphy
    Post random epigraphic content (hieroglyphs, transliterations, translations, comments).
    Requesting assistance... Razz


Instead of spamming threads here and there, let's gather all in here. Idea
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Kmt is not a racial term nor a reference to the black silt deposited on the Nile valley, but an expression of "standing on place wherein food is plenty, allowing to stop moving like the neighbouring nomads". -Asar Imhotep
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Medjay Archer
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PostPosted: Fri Jun 05, 2015 3:34 am    Post subject: Fragmentary Stela of Psamtik of Edfu Reply with quote

Edfu Fragmentary Block


A fragmentary block found on a kôm of Edfu where the name of one Psamtik is found. Despite its content is very vague, few hints help in understanding it narrates about an expedition against Kush in the province of Wawat. There are three Psamtik in the Saite Dynasty, but it is advanced chances are best with the first one as there is another text mentioning a revolt in the whereabouts of Elephantine. However, it could also be Psamtik II. As for the last native pharaoh, Psamtik III, he was too jeopardized by the eastern foes (Persians) to be preoccupied by the Southerners.

It is not said who found the block in question, but the facsimile seems to originate from Georges Posener.

There are two sources in literature regarding that block (seemingly):

*Sauneron & Yoyotte, "La campagne nubienne de Psammétique II et sa signification historique", BIFAO 50, 1952, p. 201 note #3
* Habachi, "Psammétique II dans la région de la première cataracte", Oriens Antiquus 13, 1974, p. 325
* Habachi, "Psammétique II dans la région de la première cataracte", Sixteen Studies on Lower Nubia, 1981, p. 267-269





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Kmt is not a racial term nor a reference to the black silt deposited on the Nile valley, but an expression of "standing on place wherein food is plenty, allowing to stop moving like the neighbouring nomads". -Asar Imhotep
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Medjay Archer
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PostPosted: Fri Jun 05, 2015 3:35 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Can anyone help me with the translation of the line before the last one? Very Happy
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Kmt is not a racial term nor a reference to the black silt deposited on the Nile valley, but an expression of "standing on place wherein food is plenty, allowing to stop moving like the neighbouring nomads". -Asar Imhotep
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Medjay Archer
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 16, 2015 1:20 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The Tanis stela was found by Pierre Montet in a favissa of the Amun Temple at Tanis. Perhaps, it was to consecrate the temple itself and the offering was the victory against the forces of chaos once again. The Tanis stela confirms that Psamtik II acted in response to a Kushite threat. He accompanied his army as far as Elephantine and it then proceeded southwards toward the region of “Shas”, which was identified to be in the whereabouts of Napata. This same stela also records the first victorious encounter at a place named “Tadehnet” (The Hill), which may have been in the neighbourhood of Dongola or at Gebel Barkal itself. In the narration, it is made a reference to the "kwr", which may be seen as the foreign Kushite king, which is named the Qore in later meroitic accounts.

Two weeks of analytic review of the Tanis stela condensed here.
With the help of various partial sources (unfortunately). Some reconstruction. The French translation of Sauneron & Yoyotte is one problematic kind: no transliteration, paleographic facsimile and free form translation. It makes their take on the translation difficult to evaluate.








*Sauneron & Yoyotte, "La campagne nubienne de Psammétique II et sa signification historique", BIFAO 50, 1952, p. 173ff
*Jeremy Pope - The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo, p.87
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Kmt is not a racial term nor a reference to the black silt deposited on the Nile valley, but an expression of "standing on place wherein food is plenty, allowing to stop moving like the neighbouring nomads". -Asar Imhotep
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Medjay Archer
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 17, 2015 4:38 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I have some question and request of help for some obscure zones:



A) Is that good facsimile of the verb "endure, establish"? The paleographic facsimile of Sauneron&Yoyotte is pretty bad. Not to mention of their free form translation without any transliteration, making the critical view of their translation take difficult to judge.

For that region, they translated: "[...]stabilité et force, étant établi en la place de l'Horus des vivants."

"étant établi" is roughly in english "being established" or "enduring". Hence, I thought it was an infinitive form until I realized it could be a stative tense.

B) It is a reconstruction from their translation: "[...] alimenter leurs autels [...]" Of course, I don't expect miracle in reconstruction.

C) It took me time to realize to be the word Neith as in her Lower Egypt crown. Indeed, being Saite, Psamtik II might be emphasizing everything related to Sais and Lower Egypt as a whole. However, Sauneron&Yoyotte translated as "couronnement [coronation]". I find it difficult to come from "crown" to "coronation act". I just put faith in their choice, lacking better for the moment being.

D) This damn one! So much time lost on this. I have no idea about it. Often, the piece of meat hieroglyph forms a determinative for body parts.

E) I have somehow a difficult to see Sauneron&Yoyotte translation "[...] Il alla avec lui [...]" (He went with him) in this. It is the combination of D54 (iw) with D4 in the past tense that confuses me. Is it some kind of grammar rule where D54 acts like an auxiliary verb?

F) This one, I evidently don't expect anything. Sauneron&Yoyotte tersely translated as "copie" (copy, image).
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Kmt is not a racial term nor a reference to the black silt deposited on the Nile valley, but an expression of "standing on place wherein food is plenty, allowing to stop moving like the neighbouring nomads". -Asar Imhotep
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PostPosted: Sat Jun 27, 2015 4:11 am    Post subject: Shellâl Stela of Psamtik II - Follow-up Reply with quote

Shellâl Stela of Psamtik II - Victory Commemoration Stela over the Kushites

The previous thread that started it is linked here.

Corrected Facsimile



Transliteration+Translation+Analysis



Hassan Bakry Translation



Main Text Final Translation inspired from various sources:

Quote:


(1) Third regnal year, second month of summer, 10th day, under the majesty of Horus "Rê-Being-Splendid-of-Mind", the king-of-Upper-and-Lower-Egypt,
the Two-Ladies "Whose-Arm-is-Powerful", the Golden Horus "Who-made-Two-Lands-Perfect", Son-of-Rê of his body, "Psamtik", may he live eternally,
(2) beloved of Khnum, lord of the Cataract, beloved of Satis, Lady of Elephantine and beloved of Anukis, foremost of Bow-land, the good god, whose
advice is clever, (3) brave king, successful of deeds, whose arm is strong as he smites the Nine Bows. His Majesty was roaming the marshes by the Lake
"Neferibrê", (4) travelling around the flood land, traversing the region of its two islands, beholding the trees of God's Land on its mud bank, his heart was
pleased (5) to obverse beautiful things like the Great God traversing the Primeval Waters. One came to say to His Majesty: "The troops (6) which Your Majesty
sent to Bow-Land have reached the foreign country of Pnubs. This land is devoid of a battlefield, a place devoid of horses." (7) The Kushites of every foreign
country rose up against His Majesty, their hearts being filled with violence against him. His victorious "retaliation" persisted there! Misery (awaits those) in
giving hostilities to it/him! ( 8 ) Then, His Majesty did a fighter's work and joined the battle; (therefore) the rebels showed their backs. No arrows (went) amiss
against them at all! (9) The hand did not become loose. One waded in their blood as in a body of water. No fugitive escaped (because) he was bound (in pair)
as prisoners: (10) 4200 (of them on top of this)! The rest was made into hands. His Majesty's heart was happier (about this) than anything (else). His
Majesty caused to be brought a (11) great offering of short-horned and long-horned oxen to all the gods of Two-lands, (12) (another) offering for the god of the
palace in the temple, that he may given all life, stability, and dominion, and all health, and all happiness, like Rê, eternally!



Miscellanies:

Notes ordered by Main Text Columns

(2) The choice of Khnum, Satis and Anukis makes sense given the original location of the commemorative stela at Shellâl. That location is below Elephantine and place of adoration
of these gods. All these gods are associated to the 1 Cataract of the Nile.
The good god referred is the king. The term "Hm" is often translated as "Majesty", but "Incarnation" is better fitted albeit needing a background to understand it. It means "the divine and mortal
incarnation". I think there were many designations for the king depending of the context.

(3) The Nine Bows refers to the plurality of the three traditional foes of Egypt (Kushites (Nehesyu), Libyans (Tehenu/Tjemehu) and Semites (Amu)). As time progressed in Egypt history, the number of enemies among the chaos doers augmented and the plurality
of the plurality was a mean to express the high number of foes/foreigners.

(4) The named lake was likely a place of rest for the king. The trees perhaps a part of the lake decorum by its banks.
The God's Land was a term to refer the distant lands in Kush. Perhaps, it made a wink to the fact of the origins of the
Nile floods.

(6) Bow-Land was initially belonging to Egypt during Old Kingdom as the first Nome and in Lower Nubia. Later, it became a foreign land. Pnubs can be literally translated as
"House (of) Tree/Sycomore City" (Pr-Nbs). Seemingly, they were ziziphus trees there. At least, it is roughly localized in the well-known region of Kerma where lied the
strongest village during the Middle Kingdom. That region is known to be fertile compared to the barren surroundings.

( 8 ) Showing the backs was a sign of weakness and cowardice. Total annihilation was the only deserving fate for them as all arrows destroyed the cowards.

(9) The concept of "hand loose" is meant in the sense of cut. During the New Kingdom, there was that practice of cutting hands of the fallen in battlefield
in order to count and scale the success of the battle. However, it is not known if the practice was still done by the 26th Dynasty and the expression lies
more in the drama than actuality. The following sentence is indeed an attempt in hyperbole to emphasize the greatness of the king's deeds.

(10) "The rest was made into hands" means the fallen enemies had their hands cut and counted. Captured ones are bounded in pairs for incoming slavery and offerings.

(11-12) Typical act of fulfilling the Ma'at covenant between the king and the gods: offerings are given to the gods to
please them in return to receive all good things.
==============


(A) Interestingly, many words in the Shellâl Stela was purely written in phonetics with missing determinative. According to Hassan Bakry, the Carian, Ionian and
Greek mercenaries had brought with them their Greek script. The simplicity of Ancient Greek might have impressed some Egyptian scribes, attempting to
imitate it. However, because of the arisen confusion, that manner of writing was abandoned by the 30th Dynasty.

( B ) Tripling the same determinative is a sign of archaism. See the short-horned and long-horned oxen part. Using the "pw" article is also proper to theological
writing (and archaism).

(C) Hereunder, it is another mystery about these rounded hieroglyphs. I collated various things about it. Likely, just like the "r-sy/r-sty" case, there won't be
a conclusion to it. Hassan Bakry entirely omitted to make mention of it, likely he had nothing to add about it.


_________________
Kmt is not a racial term nor a reference to the black silt deposited on the Nile valley, but an expression of "standing on place wherein food is plenty, allowing to stop moving like the neighbouring nomads". -Asar Imhotep
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Medjay Archer
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PostPosted: Sat Jun 27, 2015 4:13 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

A big thank for Michael Tilgner for his constant help in commentaries and providing literature.
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Kmt is not a racial term nor a reference to the black silt deposited on the Nile valley, but an expression of "standing on place wherein food is plenty, allowing to stop moving like the neighbouring nomads". -Asar Imhotep
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