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Mummified Remains of Queen Nefertari - GKW Ramses II

 
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Lutz
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PostPosted: Thu Dec 01, 2016 12:34 pm    Post subject: Mummified Remains of Queen Nefertari - GKW Ramses II Reply with quote

Michael E. Habicht, et al. : Queen Nefertari, the Royal Spouse of Pharaoh Ramses II - A Multidisciplinary Investigation of the Mummified Remains Found in Her Tomb (QV66). - In: PLoS ONE 11(11). - 2016. - 20 p. (PDF)

Quote:
Abstract

Queen Nefertari, the favourite Royal Consort of Pharaoh Ramses II (Ancient Egypt, New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty c. 1250 BC) is famous for her beautifully decorated tomb in the Valley of the Queens. Her burial was plundered in ancient times yet still many objects were found broken in the debris when the tomb was excavated. Amongst the found objects was a pair of mummified legs. They came to the Egyptian Museum in Turin and are henceforth regarded as the remains of this famous Queen, although they were never scientifically investigated. The following multidisciplinary investigation is the first ever performed on those remains. The results (radiocarbon dating, anthropology, paleopathology, genetics, chemistry and Egyptology) all strongly speak in favour of an identification of the remains as Nefertari’s, although different explanations—albeit less likely—are considered and discussed. The legs probably belong to a lady, a fully adult individual, of about 40 years of age. The materials used for embalming are consistent with Ramesside mummification traditions and indeed all objects within the tomb robustly support the burial as of Queen Nefertari.

Greetings, Lutz.
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Lutz
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 02, 2016 4:08 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

"Queen Nefertari’s Legs Likely Identified" (The History Blog - 01.12.2016)

Quote:
"... Anthropometric reconstruction and assessment of the size of the knees revealed they belonged to a woman whose stature ranged between 165 cm (5 foot 5 inches) and 168 cm (5 foot 6 inches). ...

... Analysis of the materials used for embalming showed they were consistent with Ramesside mummification traditions, while X-rays of the left knee pointed to possible traces of arteriosclerosis, suggesting the legs belonged to an elderly person. “The accumulated evidence could point to an individual between 40 and 60 years old,” Rühli and colleagues wrote. ...

... Unfortunately, no useable DNA could be extracted — the samples were too contaminated — so there will be no genetic information forthcoming. Radiocarbon dating results indicated the remains were around two centuries older than Queen Nefertari going by the current chronology.

“A discrepancy between radiocarbon dating and Egyptian chronology models has long been debated. Indeed, some question on the chronological model of the New Kingdom may now arise,” Habicht said. “For the future, we strongly suggest radiocarbon dating of other royal and non-royal remains of the Ramesside era, in order to validate or disprove the chronology,” he added. ..."

Greetings, Lutz.
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kylejustin
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 03, 2016 12:03 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

This is fascinating. I think they are her legs. They radio carbon dates are interesting, if they are correct, the legs could belong to an 18th dynasty queen. Especially taking into account the knob with ay's name on it....I wouldn't be surprised if her tomb was used as a store or cache briefly, which would take into consideration the knob and carbon dating. Especially since most royal women from the new Kingdom are unaccounted for. The knob could also be explained as flood debris. Though the article mentioned that the 17th-18th dynasty tombs are lower in the valley as opposed the rammeside tombs which are higher. Comparison with the valley of the kings, where most 18th dynasty kings were located in the cliffs, could hint at some tombs in the cliffs not the floor of the valley of the queens...
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 03, 2016 12:06 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

With the DNA, I also find it interesting they took samples from the tissue and not the bone. If they drilled into the bone they would have uncontaminated samples. So saying they can't get viable DNA is blatantly untrue, they probably weren't allowed any invasive tests, which seems likely because the article states the sandals were examined insitu, in the display cases. So they weren't removed to examine them.
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Robson
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PostPosted: Mon Dec 05, 2016 1:45 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I wonder, once he would be related to Ay, if she shares DNA information with Yuya and Tjuya, and their descendants (KV55, KV35 Elder Lady and Younger Lady and Tutankhamun)
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Lutz
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PostPosted: Mon Dec 05, 2016 10:23 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Bertha Porter / Rosalind Moss : Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings I - The Theban Necropolis - Part 2 : Royal Tombs and Smaller Cemeteries. - [2nd, rev. Ed.]. - Oxford : Oxford University Press; Griffith Institute, 1964. - XXXVIII, pp. 495-887,

Elisabeth Thomas : The Royal Necropoleis of Thebes. - Trenton, NJ : Moorman, 1966. - IV + XII, 298 p.

and the

Valley of the Queens Assessment Report. - [Ed. Martha Demas / Neville Agnew]. - Los Angeles, CA : Getty Conservation Institute, 2012. - Part II - Site Significance, Description and History. - 130 p. :

Page 78 :



Page 83 :



give, as far as I can see, no archaeological evidence for a cachette (in the sense of DB 320, KV 35 or KV 40) in the Valley of the Queens. QV 66 was probably not accessible during ancient times, and in 1904 Ernesto Schiaparelli did not find any evidence of a re-use after looting (for whatever).

Interestingly mentions the book "Valley of the Queens Assessment Report" (2016) on page 52 :
Quote:
"... The tomb of Nefertari was looted in antiquity but a number of fragmentary objects were recovered by Schiaparelli and are now in the
Turin Museum. These include thirty-four ushabti, the lid of a box and scepter head, both with the name of the pharaoh Ay, protective amulet, remains of the granite sarcophagos, and a pair of
sandals (Leblanc 1999 and Leblanc and Siliotti 2002). ..."

There is also a picture of the box-lid. This was new to me, I have previously only known the object from blue fayence.

Does one not go with radiocarbon date from an error rate around 100-200 years? Or do I have this wrong in remembrance? Therefore it would be interesting to date also other known remains from mummies from the time of Ramses II / Nefertari (as the article implies), also for chronological reasons...

Greetings, Lutz.
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 10, 2016 12:13 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Lutz wrote:
Valley of the Queens Assessment Report. - [Ed. Martha Demas / Neville Agnew]. - Los Angeles, CA : Getty Conservation Institute, 2012. - Part II - Site Significance, Description and History.

Interestingly mentions the book "Valley of the Queens Assessment Report" (2016) on page 52 :
Quote:
"... The tomb of Nefertari was looted in antiquity but a number of fragmentary objects were recovered by Schiaparelli and are now in the Turin Museum. These include thirty-four ushabti, the lid of a box and scepter head, both with the name of the pharaoh Ay, protective amulet, remains of the granite sarcophagos, and a pair of sandals (Leblanc 1999 and Leblanc and Siliotti 2002). ..."

There is also a picture of the box-lid. This was new to me, I have previously only known the object from blue fayence. ...

This box-lid has left me no rest... It does not seem to exist (Jacobus van Dijk via EEF, 07.12.2016). A request by e-mail at the museum in Turin has so far been unanswered. Crying or Very sad

Maybe someone has ...

Christian Leblanc : Nefertari, "l'aimée-de-Mout" - Epouses, filles et fils de Ramsès II. Champollion. - Monaco : Rocher, 1999. - ISBN : 2268029476. - 340 p.

... at hand, and could look inside briefly?

Greetings, Lutz.
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PostPosted: Sun Dec 11, 2016 7:35 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

For all those, like me, need a bit of tuition regarding radiocarbondating :

Robert M. Porter : Recent Egyptian Carbon Dating Projects and Dendrochronology. In: Damqatum 10. - 2014. - pp. 11 - 15. Online for free : Damqatum - CEHAO Newsletter. And, also the other issues are worth a look ...

Greetings, Lutz.
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