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Graffito of Esmet-Akhom - The last hieroglyphic inscription

 
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Lost Pharaoh
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PostPosted: Sun Feb 03, 2019 7:57 am    Post subject: Graffito of Esmet-Akhom - The last hieroglyphic inscription Reply with quote

I got very interested in last know hieroglyphic inscription, called Graffito of Esmet-Akhom because it causes me goosebumps when I think about of the moment of its creation, which is colorfully described by Michael Tilgner in his post:

"One sees the old priest writing it into the wall of the temple. He only knows some standard phrases and his name. It becomes complicated and therefore he switches to the script he knows more fluently - Demotic*."

*pointing to the other part of the inscription in Demotic (not shown in my version)

Because of this interest, I decided to make a picture of the inscription which could clearly show hieroglyphs and their arrangement. I corrected some hieroglyphs, transcription, and translation which I think it should be instead of original from Catalogue of the Demotic Graffiti of the Dodecaschoenus, vol. I: Text, Oxford, 1935, p. 126 by F. Ll. Griffith, which I used as a basis for my work.



What do you think about this inscription? How it makes you feel? Do you think that my translation, transcription, and choice of hieroglyphs are correct? What you should change?

Boris J.
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PostPosted: Tue Feb 05, 2019 1:44 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Mr. Tilgner asked me to convey the following ...

Quote:
Dear Boris,

Quote:
Do you think that my translation, transcription, and choice of hieroglyphs are correct? What you should change?


I would like to stick to the reading and interpetation of: F. Ll. Griffith, Catalogue of the Demotic Graffiti of the Dodecaschoenus, vol. I (Text), Oxford, 1937, p. 126.

Please note his remark: "The name and titles of the author would be unintelligible without the key given by the demotic."

There are several readings of the White Crown H1 in the Ptolemaic time, but not one which could be related to Esmet or similar.

For the writing of Hm-ntr 2-nw "second priest" in general see Griffith's comment; for U36 in Hieratic see Georg Möller, Hieratische Paläographie, vol. III, 2nd rev. ed., 1936, p. 46

End of column 2:

G7D (for G7; falcon of Horus on a standard) is an abbreviation of nb "lord" (Wb. II, 227 and DZA 24.374.30). The following sign is not V30 nb, but N102 or N18 jw "island" which was erroneously used for N30 jA.t "mound" (Wb. I, 26), jA.t-wab.t "Abaton, the island Bigge near Philae", literal: the "pure mound".

Best wishes,
Michael Tilgner


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PostPosted: Tue Feb 05, 2019 9:44 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hi Lutz,

Thank you for contacting Michael for this, and thank him for answering on it.

I have a few questions:

1) I suspected that there is a different readings for White Crown during Ptolemaic times, but I couldn't find any document which list those. Do you have source where I can find other transliterations for White Crown? I am also thinking, because the hieroglyphs in very bad shape, could this be some other hieroglyphs instead of White Crown (S1), which would fit in the name of Esmet-Akhom?

2) Why translation of Q1-X1:Q3-V20:Z1 (jst-mD) is translated Esmet? I guess again that this hieroglyphs has some other value in Ptolemaic times, and if that is true, do you have any source text where I can find those?

3) I just noticed that word "priest" is actually a "priestess", because spelling is Hmt, not Hm. Could this mean that Esmet-Akhom is actually a woman? :O I know its is written as "son of Esmet", but I don't know if that is also an error...

3) For word "second", could be that the instead of H8 (egg) hieroglyphs it is actually W24? Also for this word, I think that right transliteration would be actually 2-nwt because it has t inside it and also it could be feminine if we treat preceding word as feminine (Hmt).

4) Is the G7D right hieroglyph in this situation? For N102 or N18, if we look original inscriptions it doesn't look like any of these two, more like V30 with some weird line in the middle, but you got the point with that translation of word Abaton. I could not find the right hieroglyphic writing of name of this place until now.

Thank you,
Boris J.
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 06, 2019 1:43 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

See examles from TLA for N102!

iw - (Insel) island and Iw-wab - Abaton:

Arrow DZA 20.431.170
Arrow DZA 20.430.560

Arrow DZA 20.430.630 Exclamation

Aset
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 06, 2019 8:29 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thank you Aset for these references. I hope I will get answers to my questions from Michael Tilgner.
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PostPosted: Thu Feb 07, 2019 7:03 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Lost Pharaoh wrote:
... I hope I will get answers to my questions from Michael Tilgner.

Quote:
Dear Boris,

Quote:
Do you have source where I can find other transliterations for White Crown?

(1) The number of signs has increased considerably in the Ptolemaic era. Depending on criteria to identify signs, numbers from 4500 to more than 6000 are given, in comparison the Gardiner list has some 700 signs. There have been efforts to compile all these signs and readings, the latest being of Dieter Kurth who published a Ptolemaic Grammar in 2007-2008 in two volumes. The chapter "Sign-List" in vol. 1 consists of 336 pages, including the notes. Kurth also prepared an abbreviated version of the sign-list (in English!) - without the notes:

Dieter Kurth : A Ptolemaic Sign-List. Hieroglyphs Used in the Temples of the Graeco-Roman Period of Egypt and their Meanings (2010)

I add the entry for S1: The first line lists the phonograms, the following lines the ideograms (words). As you can see from it, reading Ptolemaic texts is a difficult and - above all - time-consuming task! Therefore there are only few egyptologists around who have specialized in this field.

Quote:
could this be some other hieroglyphs instead of White Crown (S1), which would fit in the name of Esmet-Akhom?

Looking again at the hieroglyphs of Phil 436 I think that at least this sign is clearly identifiable. I point again to Griffith's comment that the name and title can only be read by resorting to the Demotic.

Quote:
Why translation of Q1-X1:Q3-V20:Z1 (jst-mD) is translated Esmet?

(2) The final t of As.t / js.t has fallen off in later times, as can be seen from the Coptic form "ise". Whether the sign below X1 is really Q3, must be open. Perhaps it is only a Z1 (my opinion), compare it with the Z1 under V20 (see a similar writing also from Philae: DZA 1.007.201).

Quote:
Could this mean that Esmet-Akhom is actually a woman?

(3) Not at all! Griffith refers to the Coptic word hont which is the equivalent of Hm-nTr "priest (servant of god)". The final nt is the rest of nTr "god"; this word alone is noute in Coptic, the final r has fallen off. Griffith obviously thinks that the spelling of the time has crept into the hieroglyphic writing, thus creating the feminine form Hm.t-nTr, which is indeed "remarkable".

Quote:
could be that the instead of H8 (egg) hieroglyphs it is actually W24?

(3') The sign looks quite similar to the signs a line above and a line below. The group X1:H8 is used in Ptolemaic texts as an ending for goddesses and their epithets. As Esmet-Akhom wrote his title in a feminine form, he also applied the feminine form for 2-nw "second"; at least this seems logical!

One can try to find out the reasons why Esmet-Akhom wrote his text as he did, but not all can be clarified.

Best wishes,
Michael Tilgner


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PostPosted: Thu Feb 07, 2019 7:40 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thank you Lutz, and thank you, Michael, for giving this great explanation with a lot of the references. I will use the information you provided to correct my drawing.

Best,
Boris J.
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PostPosted: Sat Feb 09, 2019 11:33 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Here is corrected version of the Graffito.



Best,
Boris J.
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PostPosted: Sat Feb 09, 2019 5:13 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

m-a - through (someone)

I think, D37 / D38 / D39 is correct, not D39.

Arrow Wb 2, 45.10, no evidences for D40.

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PostPosted: Sat Feb 09, 2019 5:54 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hi Aset,

I agree with you, but if you look at original inscription, you will see that arm is holding a stick, so this is probably the priest's mistake. So I left it as in original.

Boris J.
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PostPosted: Tue Feb 12, 2019 1:26 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

In addition perhaps the reference for two online accessible works. They provide further information on the author of the graffito, his family and the religious and social conditions of the time ...

J.H.F. Dijkstra : [url=https://***.nl/research/portal/publications/religious-encounters-on-the-southern-egyptian-frontier-in-late-antiquity-ad-298642(93685692-6079-4d6e-8d19-1d6a177ca3a1).html]Religious Encounters on the Southern Egyptian Frontier in Late Antiquity (AD 298-642)[/url]. - [University of Groningen, PhD, 2005]. - PDF - 3 MB - 247 p.

Solange Ashby : Calling Out to Isis - The Enduring Nubian Presence at Philae. - [University of Chicago, PhD, 2016]. - PDF - 6 MB - 316 p.

The PDF's are searchable. So you can quickly find the relevant sections with keyword "Esmet".

Greetings, Lutz.
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PostPosted: Tue Feb 12, 2019 1:30 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

For the first link : copy and past it into your browser and replace "***" with "rug".
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PostPosted: Tue Feb 12, 2019 1:33 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Last try ... Cool

Religious Encounters on the Southern Egyptian Frontier in Late Antiquity (AD 298-642)
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PostPosted: Tue Feb 12, 2019 9:36 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thank you very much Lutz, I will check those links and PDFs.

Best,
Boris J.
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