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Mummy caches

 
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anneke
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PostPosted: Sun May 08, 2005 5:07 pm    Post subject: Mummy caches Reply with quote

There are two collections of mummies discovered.

One is often referred to as the Deir el Bahari Cache DB320. This cache consists of some 36 mummies found in Thebes. The tomb is sometimes labelled as TT320

The other cache consisted of some 13 mummies found in the King's Valley in KV 35.

DB320:

No 61051 Sequenenre-Tao II died in battle. The king had apparently been stabbed behind one of his ears with a knife or sword. His cheek and nose had been smashed, perhaps with a mace, and the large wounds visible above the king's right eye and on his upper forehead may have been inflicted with a battle axe. All of these injuries seem consistent with the kind of battlefield death.
Ikram and Dodson refer to a recent examination of the wound behind the king's ear which revealed that this injury had started to heal prior to the king's death, and therefore indicated that Seqnenre-Taa II had received it well in advance of the time when the other wounds to his head were inflicted. They mention the possibility that the king may have been injured in battle, and then assassinated while he was still recuperating.
Seqenenre-Tao was ca 1.70 m tall(5ft 7in) and had thick curly black hair.
No 61052Unknown Woman A, Probably (Ahmose)-Meryetamen I Described as a small old woman. The mummy is badly damaged and is missing its arms. Probably a daughter of Seqenenre Tao II. Both of Ahmose-Meryetamun's ears had been pierced, and remarked on the poor state of her dentition. She was elderly at the time of her death, and may have died as the result of a fall backward which produced a head injury still visible on her mummified scalp.
This mummy has been confused in the literature with that of Meryt-Amon II ,the daughter of Ahmose I and the wife of the 18th Dynasty king Amenhotep I. The mummy of Merytamen II was found in TT358.Her mummy indicates that she died in her thirties. To further confuse the issue, Merytamen II was mistaken for another Merytamen who was a wife of Amenhotep II.
No 61053 Ahmose-Inhapi daughter of Senakhtenre-Tao I and the wife of Seqenenre-Tao II. Ahmose –Inhapi was ca 1.69 m tall (5ft 6 1/3in). She is described as a stout youngish woman. The mummification techniques used on Inhapi bears some resemblance to those used for her husband Seqenenre Tao. As in the case of Seqnenre-Taa II, aromatic powdered wood had also been sprinkled over Inhapi's body.
No 61054 Lady Rai was supposedly a nurse of Ahmose-Nofretari. Lady Rai was a youngish woman who stood only 1.51 m tall (4ft 11 1/2 in). Her mummy is in very good shape.
No 61055 Ahmose-Nefertari died at ca 70 years of age. Ahmose Nefertari was the daughter of Sequenenre Tao and Queen Ahhotep. She was married to Ahmose and the mother of Amenhotep I. She was ca 1.61 tall (5ft 3 1/3 in)
No 61056 Unknown Woman B (Tetisheri?) This lady was a white haired, partially bald petite lady. She would have stood 1.57 m tall (5 ft 1 3/4 in). Tetisheri was the daughter of the nobleman Tjenna and his wife Neferu. She was the wife of Senachtenre Tao I and the mother of Seqenenre Tao II and Queen Ahhotep.
No 61057 Ahmose I died age ca 35 - 40. He stood about 1.64 m tall (5ft 4 1/3 in).
[n]No 61058 Amenhotep I[/b] Died in his 40s. The son of Ahmose and Queen Ahmose Nefertari was the second king of the 18th Dynasty.
No 61059 Siamun (2nd) son of Ahmose. Siamun died as a young child, and the mummy consists of a collection of bones.
No 61060 Sitamun daughter of Ahmose. This mummy consists of a bundle of reeds surmounted by a skull. She is probably a daughter of Ahmose and Ahmose-Nefertari. She held the title of God’s Wife.
No 61061 Ahmose-Henttimehu, probably a daughter of Seqenenre-Taa II and Ahmose-Inhapi. She was an old woman at the time of her death and must have lived into the reign of Ahmose. She stood a little over 1.52 m (4ft 11 3/4 in). She was a King’s Sister and King’s Wife (of Ahmose).
No 61062 Ahmose-Henttempet (Henutemipet?) is thought to be a daughter of Seqenenre-Taa II and Ahhotep I. She would have been a sister of King Ahmose. She reached an advanced age and must have lived into the reign of Ahmose. She stood ca 1.61m tall (5ft 3 1/2 in)
No 61063 Ahmose-Sitkamose, Perhaps a daughter of Kamose..She would have been ca 1.62 m tall (5 ft 7 3/4 in). Possibly received the title of God’s Wife posthumously.
No 61064 Ahmose Sipair. A son of Ahmose and his sister-wife Ahmose Nefertari. This peculiar mummy looks very distorted. The skin and only some of the bones remain.
No 61065 Tuthmosis I ? maybe someone else? Maspero thought he was over 50 at time of death, but recently examinations have shown he was only approximately 20 years old.. One recent theory, as noted by Ikram and Dodson, proposes that this mummy is actually that of Ahmose-Sipairi, the alleged father of Tuthmosis I. This man stood ca 1.55 m tall (5ft 3/4in).
No 61066 Tuthmosis II Son of Tuthmosis I and Queen Mutnofret. Tuthmosis II was married to Hatshepsut and was the father of her daughter Neferure. Died age 25-30? Smith noted that Tuthmosis II was practically bald and that the skin of his face was wrinkled, facts which made him conclude that the king was older than 30 when he died. No obvious cause of death was found during the examination of the mummy, but Maspero, Smith, Ikram and Dodson all report that the ruler's skin is covered with scab-like patches that may be symptomatic of some as-yet unknown disease which may have claimed his life. Smith, however, thought that the skin eruptions could have been caused post mortem by reactions of the tissues with the embalming materials. He stood ca 1.68 m tall (5ft 6 1/3in).
No 61067 Unknown Man C. This individual was fairly tall for his time. He would have been ca 1.74 tall (5 ft 8 1/2 in). His remains were found in the coffin of a scribe named Nebseni. This man in his late middle age was most likely a high ranking official from the early 18th dynasty. Some have speculated that this could be Senenmut (there is no evidence for that identification however).
No 61068 Tuthmosis III died at ca 65 years of age. He was the son of Tuthmosis II and Queen Iset. He stood ca 1.68 m tall (5ft 6 1/3in).
No 61076 Unknown Woman (Bakt?) These remains belong to a young woman of about 21 years. Tentatively dated to the 18th dynasty.
No 61077 Seti I He was the son of Ramses I and Sitre (or Tiy). The mummy of Seti I indicates that he was in his sixties when he died. The man may have died from complications resulting from a severe ear infection.
No 61078 Ramesses II He was the son of Seti I and Queen Mut-Tuy. He died in his 80s
No 61083 Ramesses III He was the son of Sethnakht and Tiye-Merenesse. He died at ca 65 years of age.
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Last edited by anneke on Sun May 08, 2005 5:13 pm; edited 1 time in total
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anneke
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PostPosted: Sun May 08, 2005 5:08 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

In KV 35 they found:

No 61069 Amenhotep II Son of Tuthmosis III and Matshepsut Merytre. The king had been tall for his times and stood at 1.8 m (6 ft)--much taller than either his father or son. His body is that of a robust, strongly built individual.
No 61070 Anonymous "Elder Woman" Some thinkthis woman is Tiye, the wife of Amenhetep III. This is based on the fact that her hair matches a lock found in the tomb of Tutankhamen. The lock of hair was kept in a box with Tiye’s name on it.
No 61071 An anonymous young boy. Some thought he was Webensenu, a son of Amenhotep II.
No 61072 Anonymous young man (previously thought to be a young woman)
No 61073 Tuthmosis IV, Son of Amenhotep II and Tiaa.
No 61074 Amenhotep III, Son of Tuthmosis IV and Queen Mutemwia
No 61079 Merenptah, Son of Ramses II and Queen Isetnofret
No 61080 Siptah, Possibly the son of King Amenmesse.
No 61081 Sety II, The son of Merneptah and Queen Isetnofret.
No 61082 Unknown Woman D (Tawosret?) She was a wife of Seti II, regent for Siptah and later king in her own right.
No 61084 Rameses IV, Son of Ramses III and Queen Iset (ta Hemdjert)
No 61085 Rameses V, Son of Ramses IV and Queen (Dua)Tentopet.
No 61086 Rameses VI, Son of Ramses III and Queen Iset (ta Hemdjert)
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anneke
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PostPosted: Sun May 08, 2005 5:25 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

This is really a "who's who" list of ancient egypt.

Before I say anything else I should point out this wonderful site by MAx Miller where a lot of the detailed information is laid out:

http://members.tripod.com/anubis4_2000/mummypages1/introduction.htm

There are also some really interesting mummies that have not been definitively identified.

Quote:
No 61070 Anonymous "Elder Woman" Some thinkthis woman is Tiye, the wife of Amenhetep III. This is based on the fact that her hair matches a lock found in the tomb of Tutankhamen. The lock of hair was kept in a box with Tiye’s name on it.

This mummy started off being tentatively identified as Merytre-Hatshepsut.
Then she was identified as Queen Tiye.
But there is another theory put forth by Susan James that this may actually be Nefertiti.

Quote:
No 61072 Anonymous young man (previously thought to be a young woman)

What can I say? Very Happy
Marianne Luban and Joanne Fletcher would have us believe that this is Nefertiti. Hawass says that according to DNA testing this is actually a young male of ca 20 years old. (I went with the science in my notes, even though DNA testing on ancient remains is not free of issues.)
So that could mean it's Prince Thutmosis, Smenkhare, etc.
If it's a woman then it could be Sitamen, Meritaten, and probably many more Wink

People have speculated about other caches out there.
Notably missing are Aye, Horemheb, and quite a few of the royal women.
Who knows maybe someone will hit the mummy jackpot one of these days.
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Sesen
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PostPosted: Mon May 09, 2005 3:11 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thats a great list Very Happy

I had no idea that Amenhotep II was so tall - considering his father was a bit shortish (is that pc to say). Makes me wonder about his mother MeritRe Hatshepsut and her height. She hasn't really been identified has she, aside from the earlier id of her as the elder lady?
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anneke
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PostPosted: Tue May 10, 2005 2:55 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Woops, my list of mummies from TT320 is incomplete.
Here's the rest:

No 61087 Nodjmet Wife of the High Priest Herihor and possibly also the wife of Piankh. The age of Nodjmet at death is thought to have been between thirty and thirty-five.
No 61088 Maatkare-Mutemhet Daughter of Pinudjem I and Queen Duathathor-Henttawy. She was God’s Wife of Amen and Divine Adoratrix.
No 61090 Duathathor -Henttawy a daughter of Ramesses XI, Queen of Pinudjem I, Mother of Psusennes I.
No 61091 Tayuheret Chief of the Harim of Amen-Re. Possibly the wife of Masaharta, General and High Priest of Amun
No 61092 Masaharta General and High Priest of Amen at Thebes. He was a son of Pinudjem I
No 61093 Istemkheb daughter of the High Priest Menkheperre and the sister-wife of Pinudjem II,
No 61094 Pinudjem II Son of High Priest Menkheperre and his wife Isetemkheb. High priest of Amun at Thebes
No 61095 Nesikhonsu the wife (and niece) of Pinudjem II. She was the daughter of the High Priest of Amun Nesibanebdjedet and his wife Tahentdjehuty. She held the titles: “first chief of the concubines of Amen-Re, King of the Gods, majordomo of the house of Mut the great, lady of Ashru; prophetess of Anhur-Shu the son of Re; prophetess of Min, Horus, and Isis in Ipu; prophetess of Horus, lord of Diuef; god's mother of Khons the child, first one of Amen-Re, King of Gods; and chief of the noble ladies”
No 61096 Nestanebtishru A priestess of Amun - daughter of Pinudjem II, wife of Djedptahiufankh
No 61097 Djedptahiufankh "Second or Third Prophet of Amen-Re, King's son of Ramesses" husband of Nestanebtishru Names and titles on coffins, and texts of mummy cloths give the dates of Years 10 and 11 of Shoshenq I, and of his son Iuput A(?) (First Prophet of Amen-Re, General).
No 61098 Unknown man E This man was ca 1.71 m tall (5 ft 7 1/4 in). The man was not embalmed and sown into a sheepskin. He must have been a youngish man as his teeth were only slightly worn. No better date than “New Kingdom” has been given. Speculation about the identity of this individual has varied from Prince Zannanza to Prince Pentaweret.


NO Number assigned: Ramesses IX Probably the son of Prince Mentuhirkhopshef and Takhat, and a grandson of Ramses III.
NO Number assigned: Pinudjem I He was the son of Piankh, General and High Priest of Amen, and Nodjmet.
NO Number assigned: Ramesses I ? The mummy is that of a man 1.60 m. tall who died between 35 and 45 years of age. The body had been very well preserved using embalming techniques typical of the late 18'th-early 19'th Dynasties. The man may have died from complications resulting from a severe ear infection.


A lot of the information comes from William Max Millers' website, but I also owe a lot of the info to a book by Dennis Forbes:
Tombs, treasures, mummies: Seven great discoveries of Egyptian archaeology by Dennis C Forbes
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Menkaure
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PostPosted: Wed May 11, 2005 6:21 pm    Post subject: Wow! Reply with quote

Anneke, you have great info. as do most of the posters here. I don't normally post, but read alot of them.

What can you tell me about the 4th dynasty king Menkaure? I'm mainly interested in any remains that might exist. I understand that there may be a foot in the Cairo museum as well as part of his anthropoid wooden coffin. As I understand it, his sarcophagus was lost in a "boating accident" in the Med. sea. (Ship Wreck)

Thanks
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PostPosted: Thu May 12, 2005 12:31 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Maybe I can offer some information for you, Menkaure. By the way, your screen name (and the name of this pharaoh) would mean something like "Established is the Soul of Re," or something to that effect.

Menkaure is best known for his pyramid on the Giza Plateau. It was the third and last to be erected there. It is much smaller than that of his father's, Khafre, or grandfather's, Khufu, but it is still larger than most other Egyptian pyramids and is still in splendid condition, relatively speaking.

You're right about the sarcophagus of Menkaure. Unfortunately it was lost at sea in 1838. It was carved in the palace façade style and was extricated by Colonel Vyse, who had hoped to send it back to England on the merchant ship Beatrice. But parts of a coffin were sent back to London successfully, and human remains from the burial chamber were originally thought to have been the king's. The coffin is probably actually from the Saite Period (circa 664 BCE), and the human remains are now thought to date from the Coptic period. I think the foot you mentioned is probably the one found in the subterranean passages of the much older Step Pyramid of Pharaoh Netjerikhet (aka Djoser), and it's entirely possible that this foot belonged to that pharaoh.

The interesting thing about the pyramid of Menkaure is that the lower portion was encased in slabs of granite, some of which still survives. Menkaure seems to have died before the completion of his pyramid complex, for his mortuary temple was hurriedly finished in mud brick (this was done by his son and successor, Shepseskaf). Nevertheless, in its day it must have been stunning to behold. I believe his mortuary temple is the best preserved of all three pyramids at Giza.

Statuary found at his pyramid complex proves that Menkaure's principal wife was Khamerernebty II. She was also his sister...nothing new there, right? They had at least two children, Prince Khuenre and Prince Shepseskaf, the latter of whom succeeded Menkaure on the throne. The former was actually crown prince but, as often happened then, Khuenre died before his father. Queen Khamerernebty II was not even buried near Menkaure, interestingly enough. Her tomb was found near the valley temple of Khafre, her father.

Two of Menkaure's viziers were men named Iunmin and Nebemakhet; they were also his brothers. A third brother named Sekhemkare served at least five different pharaohs.

I just finished with a post about Sneferu for JP, who wished to know something about that king. As I told him, we don't know a lot of details about many of the pharaohs of the Old Kingdom; either the evidence is lost to us or awaits future discovery. We know very little personal information about Menkaure. I hope this is of some help to you, though.
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kmt_sesh
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PostPosted: Thu May 12, 2005 12:47 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
By the way, your screen name (and the name of this pharaoh) would mean something like "Established is the Soul of Re," or something to that effect.


My bad. That should be "Established are the Souls of Re."

Or something to that effect. Very Happy
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Menkaure
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PostPosted: Fri May 13, 2005 11:55 am    Post subject: Menkaure Reply with quote

Thanks KMT_Sesh for the info. on Menkaure. Very helpful. There is some information about a daughter, Khenkawes, who married a nobleman named Userkaf?. Herodotus, a greek historian, says she commited suicide, but other accounts say that she did not. Any info. on her?


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PostPosted: Sat May 14, 2005 2:33 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I'm afraid I can't help you much with Queen Khentkaues. Most historians regard her as the wife of Userkaf, founder of the 5th Dynasty, but the fact is, Userkaf is not mentioned even once in her tomb at Giza. Userkaf erected a pyramid in the Saqqara necropolis, so the two were not even buried anywhere close together as one would expect. Quite odd if Khentkaues was indeed his wife. We do know that she was the mother of both Sahure and Neferirkare, the two pharaohs who followed Userkaf at the start of the 5th Dynasty.

It's also possible that Khentkaues was not the wife of Userkaf but his mother. There is an intriquing inscription associated with her which can be read as either "Mother of Two Dual Kings" or "Dual King and Mother of a Dual King." The latter seems to be favored and suggests for a time Khentkaues ruled as regent until her son came of age. There's also more than one Khentkaues in this time frame, so that tends to muddle things.

I wouldn't put much stock, though, into Herodotus' spin. He made it a point to warn his readers not to take his writings of Egypt too seriously because he wasn't convinced he was being told the truth by those whom he interviewed. Still, later generations (even up to today) tend to take Herodotus' word for gospel. There's no evidence whatsoever that Khentkaues committed suicide; for that matter, there's no evidence I'm aware of to tell us how she died, period.

I believe it was Herodotus who left us the yarn about the daughter of Khufu. It was told to Herodotus that Khufu had been a horrible tyrant, and that he had even forced his daughter into prostitution. Every man who lay with her was required to contribute one block for the pyramid of Khufu, so the story goes. Nonsense, of course. But bear in mind that Herodotus visited Egypt some 2000 years after the reigns of men like Khufu and Userkaf, and we cannot expect people living that long afterward to have a solid grasp on a history so ancient to them.

Herodotus can be forgiven. He warned us, after all. If only people would listen to him. Wink
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anneke
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PostPosted: Wed May 25, 2005 11:19 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Sorry about the slow reply. I was on vacation Very Happy

I think that most now believe there were likely two Queens called Khentkaues.

Khentkaues I was possibly married to Userkaf and may have been mother to Sahure and Neferirkare. She was the owner of tomb LG100 in Giza. She appears to have been the regent for one or both of her sons. She is depicted with a uraeus and a ceremonial beard in her tomb.

Khentkaues II was the wife of Neferirkare and the mother of Neferefre and Niuserre. This woman was the owner of a pyramid at Abusir.
Her pyramid complex is described in Miroslav Verner's book "The Pyramids".

Can't really add much to what kmt_sesh wrote about Menkaure Wink
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