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Nefertiti and Akhenaten related???
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Sothis
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PostPosted: Sun Jul 24, 2011 8:35 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Who says that the mytholocigal ideologies and relationships must correspond to the real circumstances?
We know pretty well that the ancient Egyptians believed that things came into being by only depicting them, writing them down or even just uttering them.
It is all down to the right propaganda, and this is the real reason why Akhetaten was flooded with statues of Nefertiti and Akhenaten giving them divine status and associating them with Shu and Tefnut.
The real family relationship was not at all important in this propaganda. Besides Nefertiti ceased to be a "commoner" once she became GRW and herewith royal.

Think also of the fact that kings were called the son of many deities, sometimes even in the same inscription,which of course cannot be if you use rational thinking. But in AE this was not a problem.
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PostPosted: Sun Jul 24, 2011 10:42 am    Post subject: Re: Nefertiti and Akhenaten Related??? Reply with quote

Horapollo wrote:
Horapollo wrote:
Ankhesenamun is never styled "king's daughter" once she was married to Tutankhamun. But who can deny that this woman was the daughter of a king? Amenhotep III had a number of daughters and we don't know all of their names. Perhaps Nefertiti was one of them. As for Ay--he had every chance to proclaim himself the father of Nefertiti in his Amarna tomb, but says nothing to that effect. Only his wife, Tey, claims to have been her nurse.


By George no! How could a commoner like Ay say he was the father of Nefertiti when his wife said she was "the nurse of the goddess"? Ane that is what Nefertiti represented early in the reign of her husband--the goddess Tefnut. Now Shu (Akhenaten) and Tefnut were twins who sprang from Ra and became a part of him and his godhood. That's the other side of the coin. How could Nefertiti be the twin/sister counterpart of Shu (as he styled himself) unless she was his actual sister? This kind of theological fiction would not work with the daughter of a commoner. Therefore, Nefertiti had to be a daughter of Amenhotep III--the same as Akhenaten.


I think that the difference in the Ankhesenamon situation was that the king whose daughter she was happened to be was a king in disgrace. If Nefertiti were the daughter of a king she would have been the daughter of the revered Amonhotep III. There's a big difference. Unless there's a compelling evidence otherwise, I'd have to go with the theory that she didn't use the King's Daughter, King's Sister titles because she wasn't entitled to them. This, by the way would fit the pattern for the later 18th dynasty royal families quite nicely. Thutmose III & IV and Amonhotep II & III pretty much shunned the whole sibling marriage deal.

It's enough to drive modern historians who want to piece together the genealogy of the royal families together absolutely crazy, but apparently it just wasn't "done" for a private individual to mention his blood or marriage relationship to the King. The king could mention it if he wanted to--e.g. Queen Tiye's "coming out" announcement or the statue of Huy the mother of Meryetre Hatshepsut but other than that we are pretty much left with putting together the pieces of the puzzle sometimes with a healthy dose of speculation--and sometimes DNA to both clarify and confuse the situation further.
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PostPosted: Sun Jul 24, 2011 4:14 pm    Post subject: Re: Nefertiti and Akhenaten Related??? Reply with quote

Quote:
I think that the difference in the Ankhesenamon situation was that the king whose daughter she was happened to be was a king in disgrace. If Nefertiti were the daughter of a king she would have been the daughter of the revered Amonhotep III. There's a big difference. Unless there's a compelling evidence otherwise, I'd have to go with the theory that she didn't use the King's Daughter, King's Sister titles because she wasn't entitled to them.


It may simply not have been in fashion at the time for a queen to bear these titles. After all, when one wrote "sAt nsw" or "snt nsw", the actual name of the king was never mentioned so it didn't much matter what people thought of him personally. And, of course, there was nothing preventing Ankhesesamun from being styled "snt nsw" or "king's sister" (sister of Tutankhamun and, remember, half-sister counted) but she was not. Ankhesenamun, once married, had no title except "Hmt nsw wrt", the same as Nefertiti.


[/quote]This, by the way would fit the pattern for the later 18th dynasty royal families quite nicely. Thutmose III & IV and Amonhotep II & III pretty much shunned the whole sibling marriage deal.[/quote]

Possibly not. Many scholars believe that Thutmose III's first queen was Neferura, who would have been his half-sister. We don't know much about the queens of Amenhotep II. As for Thutmose IV, one of his wives, Iaret (or Wadjet) depending upon how one interprets the sign with which her name is written) is styled "king's sister".
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PostPosted: Sun Jul 24, 2011 11:10 pm    Post subject: Re: Nefertiti and Akhenaten Related??? Reply with quote

Horapollo wrote:
Quote:
I think that the difference in the Ankhesenamon situation was that the king whose daughter she was happened to be was a king in disgrace. If Nefertiti were the daughter of a king she would have been the daughter of the revered Amonhotep III. There's a big difference. Unless there's a compelling evidence otherwise, I'd have to go with the theory that she didn't use the King's Daughter, King's Sister titles because she wasn't entitled to them.


It may simply not have been in fashion at the time for a queen to bear these titles. After all, when one wrote "sAt nsw" or "snt nsw", the actual name of the king was never mentioned so it didn't much matter what people thought of him personally. And, of course, there was nothing preventing Ankhesesamun from being styled "snt nsw" or "king's sister" (sister of Tutankhamun and, remember, half-sister counted) but she was not. Ankhesenamun, once married, had no title except "Hmt nsw wrt", the same as Nefertiti.


Considering the present thought is that the mother of Tutankhamun (Younger Lady KV 35) was considered a full daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye, and his father, KV 55, was a full son of Amenhotep III and Tiye (Elder Lady, KV 35) (Hawass, Gad, et al. 2010), whose remains are demonstrably too young to be Akhenaten, then I would say that the best reason Ankhsenamun did not use the /snt nsw/ title was because she was not the sister of Tutankhamun (nor even his half-sister).

If the backlash against Akhenaten's reign was in place during Tutankhamun's reign (which seems apparent since the Golden Throne was being revamped to the revised -amun names of the king and queen), then it is understandable that she would not use the/sAt nsw/ title during Tutankhamun's reign due to the disgrace of her father's reign, although she is clearly marked as such during Akehnaten's reign at Amarna.

The titles of /mwt nsw/, /snt nsw/, and /sAt nsw/ are used consistently from the Old Kingdom through at least the Ptolemaic period. The titles convey hierarchical status for royal women, as a royal female can be (in descendant order) a /sAt nsw/ of her father-king, /snt nsw/ of her brother-king, and eventually /mwt nsw/ of her (future) son-king. These same positions are of importance to the king in his role and Living Horus/Son of Ra, as Ra is surrounded by Hathor in her tripartite mode of daughter, sister/consort, and mother of Ra, all at the same time (Troy 1986). These positions served as ritual icons of the function of Hathor in the role of kingship.

Had Nefertiti been the daughter of a king, she would have possessed such a title: there's no time, except when Akhenaenmun drops her /sAt nsw/ title during Tutankhamun's reign is there ever an occasion when a royal female dropped such a title (on this, see Troy, 1986 and Dodson and Hilton 2004). If Nefertiti been Akhenaten's sister (or even half sister), she would have possessed the title of /snt nsw/, and had she been Tutankhamun's mother, while living she would have possessed the title of /mwt nsw/.

I cannot see a situation, based upon Nefertiti's titles, what is known of this queen, etc. that we have any indication that she was either a) a daughter of Amenhotep III nor b) the sister of Akhenaten.

Reference:

Dodson, A. and D. Hilton 2004. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames and Hudson.

Hawass, Z., Y. Z. Gad, et al. 2010. Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun’s Family. Journal of the American medical Association 303/7: 638-647.

______________________. 2010. Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun’s Family. (eSupplement). Journal of the American medical Association 303/7: 1-12.

Troy, L. 1986. Patterns of Queenship: in ancient Egyptian myth and history. BOREAS 14. Uppsala: ACTA Universitatis Upsaliensis.
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 25, 2011 5:35 am    Post subject: Nefertiti and Akhenaten related??? Reply with quote

I am not sure why you would give the Hawass et al paper as a reference when you do not agree with the authors that the KV55 mummy is Akhenaten. Actually, Akhenaten, even without a co-regency, need not have been very old at the time of his death. Since we only know of 17 years of rule for him and he could have been as young as 15 when he was crowned, he may have lived no longer than age 32. And to say "from what we know of Nefertiti" is not very instructive because the sum of our knowledge is based on speculation. We don't know who the parents of Nefertiti were from the archaeological record.
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 25, 2011 6:28 am    Post subject: Nefertiti and Akhenaten related??? Reply with quote

I suppose I am somewhat disappointed that the people on this board are so dogmatic as to be so sure what can and cannot have been the case during a period in Egyptian history that was unusual in many other aspects. It is true that in the beginning of the 18th Dynasty the queens did use the title of "sAt nsw" but, once Tiye became the chief wife of Amenhotep III it is not easy to find a "sAt nsw" for a long time afterward. There was Sitamun but it may be she used that title because she was also the daughter of Tiye as well as a junior wife of her father who would never be married to a successor. However, if Nefertiti was the daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye and was married at a young age to Akhenaten--and there was a co-regency--then there would have been a young queen who could style herself "sAt nsw" but an older one who could not. Or even with Akhenaten as sole king, Queen Tiye was still alive and influential. That is my best guess for the "sAt nsw" title going out of fashion and that was on account of Tiye and out of deference to the lady.

As for the damnatio of Akhenaten, why would his family be a party to that? Meritaten, standing next to her husband, Smenkhkare, in the private tomb scene, is just "Hmt nsw" and neither of them repudiated Akhenaten. As far as I am aware, the first to try to obliterate Akhenaten was Horemheb. So I am not sure why someone would want to point to Ankhesenamun as the "exception to the rule". Who was the next queen to annex the title "sAt nsw"? Maybe not until the end of the 19th Dynasty. But I'm not so sure none of the intervening queens were not the daughters of pharaohs.
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 25, 2011 8:11 am    Post subject: Re: Nefertiti and Akhenaten related??? Reply with quote

Horapollo wrote:
I am not sure why you would give the Hawass et al paper as a reference when you do not agree with the authors that the KV55 mummy is Akhenaten. Actually, Akhenaten, even without a co-regency, need not have been very old at the time of his death. Since we only know of 17 years of rule for him and he could have been as young as 15 when he was crowned, he may have lived no longer than age 32. And to say "from what we know of Nefertiti" is not very instructive because the sum of our knowledge is based on speculation. We don't know who the parents of Nefertiti were from the archaeological record.


The authors of the JAMA paper never say that KV55 IS Akhenaten but only that he appears tp be the son of AIII and Tiye who COULD be Akhenaten.

I don`t know if you are aware of the fact that the question of the age of KV55 is nowhere mentioned in the whole report, not even with a single word.

Hawass published the opinion that due to spinal degeneration KV55 is considerably older than previously thought only in the media like the Discovery Channel.

Why do think he refrained from publishing this important finding in the official report? I think because he knows that it does not stand up to scientific scrutiny.

So as it still stands KV55 is 20-25 years old, far too young to be Akhenaten.
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 25, 2011 3:29 pm    Post subject: Nefertiti and Akhenaten related??? Reply with quote

I am less optimistic that skeletal remains can be pinpointed within five years as to age at death. Do a Google Books search on "The Archaeology of Human Bones" by Simon Mays and see page 69. There Mays discusses the failure of the Spitalfields experts, who used all kinds of so-called "reliable" criteria to ascertain the ages of remains there and were accurate less than 30% of the time when it came to that "five year window".
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 25, 2011 3:59 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

the spitalfields project found that the younger the skeleton, the more accurate the age given to it. since the kv 55 mummy appears to not have reached maturity i am inclined to believe the 4 experts who have examined the body and concluded the age of 20-25 is correct. further more, based on dentition, and fusing of bones and plates, they can say quite accurately that the mummy is closer to the age of 20 than 25 death estimates.

mummies over 30 years old are able to be identified to within years of their age at death through forensic methods.

this thread discussed the age of the mummy, the methods used, the people who examined the remains and their findings, and the spitalfields project:

http://forum.egyptiandreams.co.uk/viewtopic.php?t=5701&postdays=0&postorder=asc&start=0
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 25, 2011 5:57 pm    Post subject: Re: Nefertiti and Akhenaten related??? Reply with quote

Horapollo wrote:
I am not sure why you would give the Hawass et al paper as a reference when you do not agree with the authors that the KV55 mummy is Akhenaten. Actually, Akhenaten, even without a co-regency, need not have been very old at the time of his death. Since we only know of 17 years of rule for him and he could have been as young as 15 when he was crowned, he may have lived no longer than age 32. And to say "from what we know of Nefertiti" is not very instructive because the sum of our knowledge is based on speculation. We don't know who the parents of Nefertiti were from the archaeological record.


The remains of KV 55 are of a male who was no more than mid 20's at death (Derry 1931, Harrison 1966, and Filer 2000): I do dispute Hawass' identification of KV 55 as Akhenaten as he ignores this simple forensic fact and relies upon some ridiculous notion that because there was degeneration of the spine, the remains are of those of an older person and hence, Akhenaten (NB: studies have shown that even children in ancient Nubia have such spinal degeneration, as early as 9 years of age).

I can rely upon the simple fact of the Hawass, Gad, et al. report that indeed the remains of the Younger Lady (KV 35) and the remains of KV 55 are the full children of Amenhotep III and Tiye, since the alleles of the genetic study so state this. I don't have to believe that every statement in the Hawass, Gad, et al. report are otherwise accurate, however.

What we "know of Nefertiti" are her titles (again, see Troy 1986, which lists all the titles this queen possessed). Nefertiti does not possess the royal titles which indicates she is the daughter of a king (/sAt nsw/), nor is she styled the sister (/snt nsw/) of a king, which argues a) she is not the daughter of Amenhotep III (or any earlier Egyptian king), and b) she is not the sister or half-sister of Akhenaten.

We do not need to otherwise know her parentage to state this: had Nefertiti possessed such titles, she would have clearly stated them as they convey prestige and standing for her, not only as wife but as a royal female of distinct lineage. She does not do this, and the only other examples we have of such absences is where the female is demonstrably NOT of royal lineage (such as, for example, Merytre Hatshepsut, who, despite her name, is the daughter of the Adoratriv Huy, and was not of royal lineage (Gitton 1984)).

You also stated:

Quote:
It is true that in the beginning of the 18th Dynasty the queens did use the title of "sAt nsw" but, once Tiye became the chief wife of Amenhotep III it is not easy to find a "sAt nsw" for a long time afterward. There was Sitamun but it may be she used that title because she was also the daughter of Tiye as well as a junior wife of her father who would never be married to a successor. However, if Nefertiti was the daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye and was married at a young age to Akhenaten--and there was a co-regency--then there would have been a young queen who could style herself "sAt nsw" but an older one who could not. Or even with Akhenaten as sole king, Queen Tiye was still alive and influential. That is my best guess for the "sAt nsw" title going out of fashion and that was on account of Tiye and out of deference to the lady.


This is simply incorrect. The title of /sAt nsw/ is used throughout the latter half of the 18th Dynasty, where it clearly applied to royal females, whether they married the king or not:

For example, these royal women are styled as /sAt nsw/ (sire in parentheses)

Royal Female Titles (Sire)

Satamun (II) /sAt nsw/, /sAt nsw mrt.f*/ (Amenhotep III)

Isis (II) /sAt nsw/, /sAt nsw mrt.f/ (Amenhotep III)

Henuttaneb /sAt nsw/, /sAt nsw mrt.f/ (Amenhotep III)

Nebetah /sAt nsw nt. Xt.f**/ (Amenhotep III)

Baketaten /sAt nsw nt. Xt.f/ (Amenhotep III)

Meritaten /sAt nsw nt. Xt.f/, /sAt nsw n Xt.f mrt.f***/ (Akhenaten)

Maketaten /sAt nsw nt. Xt.f mrt.f/ (Akhenaten)

Ankhsenpaaten /sAt nsw nt. Xt.f mrt.f/ (Amarna only) (Akhenaten)

Neferneferuaten-tasherit /sAt nsw nt. Xt.f mrt.f/ (Akhenaten)

Nefernferure /sAt nsw nt. Xt.f mrt.f/ (Akhenaten)

Setepenre /sAt nsw nt. Xt.f mrt.f/ (Akhenaten)

* "Daughter of the king whom he loves"
** "Daughter of the King of his body"
*** "Daughter of the king of his body whom he loves"

Tutankhamun, Aye, and Horemheb die without living issue of any kind. When the Ramessides take over, the first daughter born to that royal house (Henutmire, daughter of Seti I and Tuya), is clearly entitled /sAt nsw/, which shows that the "daughter of the king" title is not used only when royal female children are not present.

Before Tiye, it is clear when a female is of royal lineage by her titles. To wit:

Dynasty 18:

Royal Female Titles (Associated King)

Tetisheri /Hmt nsw/, /Hmt nsw wr.t/ (Tao I), /mwt nsw/ (Tao II)

Aahhotep I /sAt nsw/ (Tao I), /snt nsw/ /Hmt nsw/, /Hmt nsw wr.t/ (Tao II), /mwt nsw/ (Ahmose I)

Ahmose Nefertari /sAt nsw/ (Tao II), /[/b]snt nsw/ /Hmt nsw/, /Hmt nsw wr.t[/b]/ (Ahmose I), /mwt nsw/ (Amenhotep I)

Ahmose-Nebetta /sAt nsw/ (Tao II), /snt nsw/ (Ahmose I)

Ahmose-Henutempet /sAt nsw/ (Tao II), /snt nsw/ (Ahmose)

Ahmose Henuttamehu /sAt nsw/ (Tao II), /snt nsw/ (Ahmose)

Satamun I /sAt nsw/ (Ahmose I), /snt nsw/ (Amenhotep I)

Merytamun I (aka Ahmose Merytamun) /sAt nsw/ (Ahmose I), /snt nsw/ (Amenhotep I), /Hmt nsw wr.t/

Satkamose /sAt nsw/ (Ahmose I), /snt nsw/ (Amenhotep I)

Sensonb /mwt nsw/ (Thutmose I)

Ahmose /snt nsw/ (Thutmose I), /Hmt nsw/, /Hmt nsw wr.t/ (Thutmose I), /mwt nsw/ (Hatshepsut)

Mutnefert /sAt nsw/, /snt nsw/*, /Hmt nsw/ (Thutmose I), /mwt nsw/ (Thutmose II)

Hatshepsut /sAt nsw/ (Thutmose I), /snt nsw/ (Thutmose II), /Hmt nsw/, /Hmt nsw wr.t/ (Thutmose II)

Neferubity /sAt nsw/ (Thutmose I)

Neferure /sAt nsw/ (Thutmose II), /Hmt nsw wr.t/ (Hatshepsut)

Isis /Hmt nsw/, /Hmt nsw wr.t/** (Thutmose II), /mwt nsw/ (Thutmose III)

Satioh /Hmt nsw wr.t/ (Thutmose III)

Merytre Hatshepsut /Hmt nsw wr.t/ (Thutmose III), /mwt nsw/ (Amenhotep II)

Nebtu /Hmt nsw/ (Thutmose III)

Menwi /Hmt nsw/ (Thutmose III)

Merti /Hmt nsw/ (Thutmose III)

Menhet /Hmt nsw/ (Thutmose III)

Merytamun II /sAt nsw/ (Thutmose III), /snt nsw/ (Amenhotep II)

Nefertere /sAt nsw/ (Thutmose III), /snt nsw/ (Amenhotep II)

Baketamun /sAt nsw/ (Thutmose III)

Tia /Hmt nsw wr.t/ (Amenhotep II), /mwt nsw/ (Thutmose IV)

Nefertere (II) /Hmt nsw wr.t/ (Thutmose IV)

Iaret /sAt nsw/(Amenhotep II or Thutmose IV), /snt nsw/, /Hmt nsw wr.t/ (Thutmose IV)

Tia II /sAt nsw/ (Thutmose IV)

Ameneopet /sAt nsw/ (Thutmose IV)

Tentamun /sAt nsw/ (Thutmose IV)

Mutemwiya /Hmt nsw wr.t/ (Thutmose IV), /mwt nsw/ (Amenhotep III)

Ending with

Tiye /Hmt nsw wr.t/ (Amenhotep III), /mwt nsw/ (Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten)

* Retrospective? in Temple of Thutmose III
** Retrospective title endowed by Thutmose III; did not hold the title in her lifetime

So, I see no way to legitimately claim that "the "sAt nsw" title (was)going out of fashion," when it's clear that it was rigidly used both before and after Tiye's ascension. It is worth noting that, of course, Tiye was not the first /Hmt nsw wr.t/ who was not of royal lineage (see Merytre Hatshepsut, Tia, Nefertere II, and Mutemwiya). It had no effect on the usage of the /sAt nsw/ title for other daughters of kings who existed alongside, before, or after these women of non-royal lineage.

Reference:

Derry, D. E. 1931. Notes on the Skeleton hitherto believed to be that of King Akhenaten. ASAE 31: 115-119.

Filer, J. 2000. The KV 55 body: the facts. Egyptian Archaeology 17/Autumn: 13-14.

Gitton, M. 1984. Les divine éspouses de la 18e dynastie. Centre de Recherches d'Histoire Ancienne 61/Annales Littéraires de l'Université de Besançon 306. Paris: Les Belles-Lettres.

Harrison, R. G. 1966. An Anatomical Examination of the Pharaonic Remains Purported to be Akhenaten. JEA 52: 95-119.

Troy, L. 1986. Patterns of Queenship: in ancient Egyptian myth and history. BOREAS 14. Uppsala: ACTA Universitatis Upsaliensis.
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 25, 2011 6:22 pm    Post subject: Nefertiti and Akhenaten related??? Reply with quote

I thought it was taken for granted that I was talking about queens and not princesses when I said that it is hard to find someone styled "sAt nsw" after Queen Tiye. Good heavens, everybody knows about the Amarna princesses and how they were styled. Also, you will notice that I did mention Sitamun precisely because she was a queen and not merely a princess.
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 25, 2011 7:12 pm    Post subject: Nefertiti and Akhenaten related??? Reply with quote

Now--as to pathology--I think it would be much better if people here did not sttate quite so absolutely what is impossible in that field unless they were involved in it, which I don't think any of us are. However, if you think that a margin of error of even ten years is not possible then you are probably skating on thin ice. So, if you want to stay on that ice and ignore all the other evidence that weighs in favor of the KV55 individual actually being Akhenaten, then be my guest--but at least allow me to summarize it.

1. The body was found in a coffin bearing the unique epithets of Akhenaten, even though the cartouches had been excised.

2. There is the block with Tutankhamun, matching to that of Ankhesenamun, both called child of a king according to their sexes. It rather looks like the father has to be the same king--and we know Akhenaten sired Ankhesenamun.

3. Smenkhkare, from what we know, was king for only a brief period. However, Tutankhamun, being about 18 when he died and having only 9 years of attested reign, was already about 9 when he became the successor. So when did Smenkhkare sire Tutankhamun? Plus, what did Smenkhkare do to deserve to be put into a coffin in the VOK that was not even his own if he was the father of Tutankhamun and KV55 sealed with the seal of Tut's reign? Doesn't look like much filial piety even from a 9-year-old. So maybe it was Smenkhkare's body that was lost instead of Akhenaten's--especially if Smenkhkare was an illegal king, which would have been the case if he was the brother of Akhenaten--if Akhenaten had a son called Tutankhaten. I

We can argue endlessly but the bottom line is that the KV55 individual could be Akhenaten because there is nothing lacking controversy that rules him out completely. And the yDNA cannot distinguish between Akhenaten and one of his brothers.
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 25, 2011 7:24 pm    Post subject: Nefertiti and Akhenaten related??? Reply with quote

Excuse me--I meant the field of "physical anthropology" and not "pathology".
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 25, 2011 8:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Are you familiar with the exclusion from the DNA paper that under certain conditions the KV55 mummy cannot be the maternal grandfather of the KV62 fetuses? There are, of course, several ways around this if one thinks the KV55 mummy is Akhenaten. Which do you chose?
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Horapollo
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PostPosted: Tue Jul 26, 2011 12:54 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Sobek wrote:
Are you familiar with the exclusion from the DNA paper that under certain conditions the KV55 mummy cannot be the maternal grandfather of the KV62 fetuses? There are, of course, several ways around this if one thinks the KV55 mummy is Akhenaten. Which do you chose?


I choose to believe that the trouble starts with the hypothesis that Ankhesenamun must be the mother of either of those fetuses. Now I admire Kate Phizackerly for her willingness and ability to think outside the box, but perhaps the weakest point in her paper

http://www.***/2010/03/dna-shows-that-kv55-mummy-probably-not.html

is where she contends that, because KV62 was finished and there was no sign of another wife for Tutankhamun there--thiis represents a real problem. In fact, it poses no problem at all because it is rare to find any mention of multiple wives in kingly tombs and offhand I can only think of one king who has various women depicted and that is Thutmose III, although not all the wives were married to him at the same time. At any rate, it was not the norm for pharaohs to be monogamous so why should Tut have been just because he is only shown with what was surely his chief queen? We are very far from knowing the names of all of the female characters in this part of the 18th Dynasty going back to the day of Amenhotep III. And we also don't know the backgrounds of some of the women whose names we do know. How many female relatives there were for Tutankhamun to take into his harem is impossible to fathom--nor exactly how they would have been related.
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