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Segereh's Dictionary

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Queen of Egypt
Queen of Egypt

Joined: 23 Jan 2004
Posts: 9305

PostPosted: Sun Aug 07, 2005 2:36 pm    Post subject: Segereh's Dictionary Reply with quote

Segereh put together this version of an Egyptian English dictionary and I have found it quite useful in the past.
Some of his writing used Dutch spelling, so I have taken the liberty of changing some of that over to English spelling.

Segereh wrote:
I've worked on this quite some time, so I kind of count on your respect for the copyright (mine).

The original post is here

Note: "3" is pronounced something like an "a".
Math and Art: http://mathematicsaroundus.blogspot.com/

Last edited by anneke on Sun Aug 07, 2005 2:48 pm; edited 1 time in total
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Queen of Egypt
Queen of Egypt

Joined: 23 Jan 2004
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PostPosted: Sun Aug 07, 2005 2:46 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote


male singular: Substantive
female singular: Substantive + t
male plural: Substantive + u (Substantives ending on -u in singular: + uy)
female plural: Substantive + ut (Substantives ending on -u in singular: + uyt)

double plural: Substantive + wy (male)
double plural: Substantive + ty (female)

a: arm (body part)
a-3(u): the great (in society)
3bd: month, monthly festival (new moon)
3bt: family, household
3kh: akh-soul
3pd: bird, fowl, poultry
3ryt: staff, wand
akhet: horizon
akhj(e)nuty: secretariat, town clerk's office
ah: palace
ah3: fight, fighter, warrior
akyt: maid-servant, servant girl, literally "the entering one"
aken: spirit
ankh: life
ankh-en-nut: soldier of the city-regiment
ankhu: the living
awy: arms (body part)

b3: 'ba'-soul
b3u: the being awesome
b3k: servant, subject
bint: the bad

debhet-hotep: requisite offering(s)
depet: boat
dj3i: ferry-boat
dj3t: evil ; boat-trip (dependent on context and hieroglyphical spelling)
djam: electron (amalgam of silver and gold, i.e. used to cover the tip of an obelisk)
djeba: ten thousand
djef(3-u): food supply
djehutet: Thoth's festival
djet: eternity
dju: mountain

gereh: night

h3ker: Haker-rites (performed in Abydos)
h3t: front (side), start, beginning
h3ty-a: governor, mayor
h3y: naked person, nude
hapy: flooding of the Nile (impersonated by Hapy, god of the Nile)
heb: festival
hebny: ebony
hebsu: clothing
hefen: hundred thousand
heh: one million ; too mukh to be counted
hem: majesty
hem-k3: 'ka'-priest, literally "the 'ka' is his majesty"
hem-netjer: 'hem'-priest, literally "the god is his majesty"
hem-netjeret: 'hem'-priestess, literally "the god is her majesty"
hemet: wife, woman
henket: beer
henu: jubilant shouts
hepet: oar, scull (stick to row)
hepu: laws
hek3: ruler ; often used in the sense of 'wizard, magician'
heker: hungry person
her: face
heret-per: domestic maid-servant
heru: day
hery-per: master of the house
hery-sesjt3: literally "keeper of secrets" (religious title)
hery-tep: superior
heseb: counter (mathematic), accountant
heset: favour, praise, flattery
hesmen: amethyst
hi: husband
hu: eloquence
hut: walled fence, foundation / establishment (of a settlement) ;
beating (dependent on context and hieroglyphical spelling)
hut-netjer: temple, literally "wall around the deity"
hotep: peace, satisfaction ; offering ; altar (everything concerning satisfying the deity)
hotepet: offerings
hotep-netjer: offerings for the deity
hotep di nesu: "an offer given by the king" (traditional phrase concerning royal offerings to the deity)

i3(u): (words of) praising ; old age
i3t: position, office, function
iah: moon
ib: heart ; thirsty person
(i)iu: welcome
ikdu: construction workers
iker: crocodile
im3kh: respectability
im3kh(u/y): the respectable
iment: West
imentu: the dead, literally "the western ones"
imy-khent: chamberlain, literally "he-who-is-in (what's in) front"
inu: tribute ; products
iu3: ox
iu3u: cattle
iuit: evil-doing
iun: pillar, column
iry: director, administrator, manager, keeper
iry nefer-h3t: keeper of the royal tiara
is: tomb, grave
it: father
iten: solar disc (worshipped as the deity Iten / Aton)
it-netjer: literally "father to the deity" (religious title)
itu: forefathers
ity: sovereign, monarkh
iwu: literally "the boat-less"

k3: 'ka'-soul ; ox, bull, beef
kereset: funeral
kha: manifestation, appearance
kh3: thousand
khasut: foreign countries, desert lands
khefty: enemy
kheper: form, manifestation, shape
khepesj: force, strong arm, forepaw
khepet: death
kherep: leader (title)
kheret-ib: heart's desire
kheru: voice
khet: thing, things ; body
khetem: seal
khetemu khjery-a: assistant / guardian of the seal (title)
khetmet: treasure, treasury (closely linked to 'khetem')
khetmety-bity: royal guardian of the seal (title),
free interpretation: King's Treasury Keeper
khekret-nesu: lady-in-waiting, lady of the royal household (title)
khenu: interior, residence
kherd: child
kheret: duty, share / part / role
kheret-heru: course of the day
kheret-netjer: necropolis
khery-a: assistant, literally "arm of duty"
khery-hebet: liturgical 'reading priest', literally "assistant to the festival"
khery-tep: chamberlain, literally "head-assistant"
khnems: friend
khu: protector
khrep: leader
khrep rekh-nesu: chief royal advisor

m3-at: truth, justice, order (impersonated by MaƤt, goddess of truth and order)
mahat: tomb, grave apparent
mekhnet: ferry boat
medjed: fifteen
medju: ten
menat: (wet) nurse
menkhet: clothing, linen
menkhu: benefactor
menu: royal consecration gift, monument ; the deity Min
mer: supervisor, head of affairs, overseer
mer akhj(e)nuty: head of secretariat, khief town's clerk
merhet: oil, ointment, salve
meri: plough
mer mesha ur: supreme commander, army general
mer per: supervisor of an estate, administrator
mer set: storekeeper, warehouse supervisor
mesha: army, expedition
mesu: khildren, offspring
mesut: progeny, posterity
mi: owl
mity: peer, equal
mu: water
mut: mother

neb: lord, ruler
nebet: lady, mistress
nebet per: mistress of the house / estate (high social status)
nebu: gold
neb-tep: khampion, literally "head-lord"
nekhnet: khild
nedjes: little man, citizen, commoner
nedjesu: the little / mean people, scum
neferet: the good
neferu: beauty, perfection
neg3u: bull with big horns
neheh: eternity
nemtet: formal journey ; way of walking
nesht: hairdresser, barber
neshmet: Neshmet-boat, Osiris' portable boat
nesu: king
nesu-bity: king of Upper- and Lower-Egypt (title), literally "lord of bulrush and bee"
netet nebet: literally "all that is", everything
netjer: deity, god
netjer nefer: "the perfect god" (king's title)
netjeru nutu: urban deities, gods linked to a specific region
nut: city

udja: prosperity (Ankh-Udja-Seneb "Life, Prosperity, Health")
unu: hare
unut: priesthood
uret: the large boat
ur(u): the great (in society), the high-society ; clan-leader

p3t: prehistoric times
per: home, estate
per-a-3: palace
peret: procession
peret-kheru: spoken offering, literally "voice-offering", ritual offerings concerning the dead
pet: heaven, sky
pi: domain

ra: day ; sun (impersonated by Ra, god of the sun)
rekh-nesu: royal advisor, confidant (title)
rekhty: khief of laundry / washing
reduy: legs, feet
remetj: humans, people
rem(u): fish
ren: name
renpet: year
renpet-sep: year of the government
ro: mouth
rud: terrace
ro-per: temple, literally "house of the mouth (of the deity)"

s3: son
s3t: daughter
se: man
sebi: rebel
sekhem: force, control
sekher: plan, policy, situation
sekhet: countryside, field, meadow
sedjret: wake
seftju: butkher
seh: hall ; advice
seh-netjer: entrance to the temple, literally "god's hall"
semeh: boat, made from papyrus
semer: courtier
semer wat(y): literally "only courtier" (title)
semi: report
sen: brother
seneb: health
senet: sister
senu senut: brothers and sisters, siblings
sentjer: incense
sep: moment ; action
ser: official, civil servant
seret: thorn
seru: goose
ses: thief, plunderer
sesh: writer
seshem: policy, behaviour, condition
set: woman ; place, position, status (dependent on context and hieroglyphical spelling)
set-a: skilfulness
set-kheret-ib: trust, confidence
set-ib: affection, intimacy, literally "place of the heart"
setjy: smell, scent
setut: resemblance
sia: wisdom
shasu: nomads, Bedouin
shed: saviour
shema: Upper-Egypt ; flourishing sedge
shemsu: disciple, follower, servant, a following
shenau: warehouse, storehouse
shenut: granary
shenyt: royal household
shepes-nesu: king's nobleman
shepses: rikhness, wealth, dignity
shepsut: dignity ; noble women
shes: calcite (Egyptian alabaster)
shet: hundred
smyt: desert area
su: bulrush, sedge
sp3t: province

t3: land, country
t3-ur: province of Thinis, literally "land of the great one"
t3wy: Upper- and Lower-Egypt, literally "both countries"
t3-mehu: Lower-Egypt
t3-meri: Egypt, literally "land of the plough"
t3-shemau: Upper-Egypt
tamit: kitten
tari: female companion
te: bread
tep: head
tep-a: ancestor
tep-renpet: festival for the beginning of the lunar year
tj3u: wind, breath
tjesu: sandbank, river bank, shore
tut: image

wa: one
w3t: road, path
w3g: Wag-festival
wa-au: private / personal domain
wab: Wab-priest, literally "the pure"
waset: sceptre, name for Thebes
web3: male servant (pouring beverages), butler
web3t: female servant (pouring beverages)
wedj: order, command, stele
wehem: reporter, herald (title), spokesman
wosret: Wosret, literally "the powerful" (title used for goddesses)


The verbs ending on (i) are weak verbs: the -i disappears when using another form than the mentioned stems. See Appendix for Conjugations.

3kh: to become an 'akh'-soul ; to be useful
aha: to rise, to stand up
ah3: to struggle, to fight
ak(i): to enter
ama-3: to throw
ankh: to live
aw(i): to support

d(i): to give
dj3(i): to take across
djed: to say, to speak
djeser: to make free, to separate
djus: to tell on someone, to report
du3: to honour

gem(i): to find

h3b: to send
h3(i): to descend
hebes: to cover
hek3: to rule
heker: to be hungry
hen: to be jubilant
hes(i): to praise
hu(i): to beat up, to hit
hotep: to be satisfied, to rest

ib(i): to be thirsty
in(i): to bring
ip: to count, to investigate, to inspect
ir(i): to do, to make, to create
itj(i): to take with / along
iw(i): to be without boat ; to come
iy(i): to come

ked: to build
kem3: to create
keres: to bury
kha: to appear
khed(i): to travel down-stream (due north)
khefer: to not let go, to hang on
khenem: to gladden, to kheer
kheper: to become, to happen, to arise, to come into being
kher: to fall
khesef: to punish, to fend off, to repel
khesef(u): to travel up-stream (due south)
khetem: to seal off, to shut out
khjenem: to unify with, to ally
khnem: to embrace, to hug
khu: to protect
khrep: to lead

m3-a: to offer, to guide ; to be true / correct / real
m3-3: to see, to watkh
m3-a-kheru: to be justified
mak: to roast
medja(i): police
mer(i): to love ; to wish
mesdj(i): to hate
mes(i): to give birth
mis: to bring ; to stretkh out

nedj: to protect
nefer: to be perfect, beautiful, good
n(i): to belong to, to be possessed by
nis: to evoke, to call upon

per(i): to go out
peter: to see, to behold

rekh: to come to knowledge, to study, to examine, to know
red(i): to give, to place, to make sure

sa-3: to make great, to promote, to enlarge
s3kh: to khange into an 'akh'-soul
sah: to hesitate
sankh: to make (a name) live
seb(i): to rebel
sekhem: to control
sekhent: to promote, to stimulate
sekher: to strike down, to fell
sekhsef: to keep at a distance
sedj3: to travel, to leave
sedjem: to hear, to listen to
segereh: to pacify, to calm, to soothe
sehetep: to satisfy
sekd(i): to travel (by boat)
seken: to hit, to beat
sekebeh: to calm, to revitalize, to refresh
sem(i): to report
sen: to kiss
seneb: to be healthy
sepeh: to catkh with a lasso
sep(i): to bind together
serekh: to accuse
setep: to choose
shed(i): to read
shems: to follow
shesep: to receive
shu: to be empty
shum: to be free from
snefer: to improve
stet: to shoot, to stab, to sting
st(i): to shoot, to impale
sw3: to cross, to pass
swab: to cleanse ; to decorate
swedj: to pass on, to leave behind

tjes(i): to tie ; to set up, to place, to appoint

wedj: to give orders
wedj3: to leave, to go on
wehem: to repeat
wen: to open
wenen: to exist, to be
wep(i): to open, to separate


The form of these prepositions dusn't khange and is commonly placed preceding the substantive it refers to.
e.g. em-bah netjer: "in the presence of the deity"
Like most Egyptians words (verbs, substantives, adverbs and adjectives), meaning often follows context.

di: gifted with
djer: since (time)
djer-netet: because of

em: in, with, through, during, in meantime
em-bah: in presence of
em-em: amidst
en: to / at people, for, because of, of
er: to (place, time), until, by the time, in comparison to
er-khjenu: in(side)
er-hat: before

hena: (together) with
her: on, because of, for

in: because of (reason)

khenet: in front of, at the head of
kher: close to, under
khjenem / khjenmet: unified with
khjer: under, with

tep: on (place)


These are prepositions, used like adjectives.
These always follow the (preceding) Substantive they refer to in Gender and Number:

male singular: -y
female singular: -t
male plural: -u
female plural: -t

hery: he-who-is-on, he-who-is-over
imy: he-who-is-in
iry: he-who-is-to, he-who-is-from
khenty: he-who-is-in-front-of, he-who-stands-in-front
khjery: he-who-is-with, he-who-is-under
nuty: he-who-is-from-the-city
tepy: he-who-is-on(-top)

Adverbs and Adjectives

These always follow the (preceding) Substantive they refer to in Gender and Number:

with male singular substantive:
with female singular substantive: + t
with male plural substantive: (+ u)
with female plural substantive: + (u)t

a-3: great
3u: long ; pleased
ankh djet: living forever, eternal
ankhet netjer im: literally "from whikh a god lives"

bin: bad
bener: sweet, pleasant, pleasing

di ankh: given / granted life
djeser: holy, sacred
djet: forever, everlasting
djet er neheh: forever and always, maintaining and repeating

en sep: never
en-wen-m3-a: in reality

h3y: naked
hotep: satisfied, tranquil, calm, peaceful

i3u: of old age
iker: (being) capable, vigilant
im3: kharming, respectable
imenty: Western, everything concerning the West or the dead
ir-en: made by, created by
iu em hotep: literally "welcome in peace"

khenty set: man of high position, literally "at front position"
khu: protected

m3-a: true, correct, justified
m3-a-kheru: true of voice, justified
men: recorded, permanent
mery: loved
mes-en: born from
mi: equal, alike

nakht: strong
neb: eakh, every, single, only
nedjes: small, weak, little
nefer: perfect, beautiful, good
nodjem: sweet, agreeable, pleasant

ur: big, important

pehty: with force, forcefully

ra neb: every day

semsu: most senior, eldest
seneb: healthy
sesjt3: secret
setep: chosen
shepsy: noble, rich

wa: one, only, unique
wab: pure (concerning priesthood)
weser: powerful, strong

Dependent pronoun:
used as a Subject, used after a Preposition,
used as Genitive to Substantives,
used as a Direct Object to Substantives.

verb + i : I, mine, me
verb + k : you, your (male)
verb + t : you, your (female)
verb + f : he/ it, his / its, him
verb + s : she / it, hers / its, her
verb + n : we, our, us
verb + ten : you, your (plural)
verb + sen : they, their, them

Dependent pronoun:
used as a Direct Object to Verbs.

verb + wi : me
verb + u : you (male)
verb + ten : you (female)
verb + su : him
verb + sy : her
verb + n : us
verb + ten : you (plural)
verb + sen : them

Independent pronoun, used to typify the 'self'.

ink : me
netek : you (male)
netet : you (female)
netef : he / it
netes : she /it
inen : we
netten : you (plural)
netsen : they

Referring pronoun:
djes + (in)dependent pronoun
e.g. djes-i (myself)

Indicating pronoun:
pen (male) / ten (female): this, these
pef (male) / tef (female): that, those

Impersonal pronoun:
est: it (impersonal)
pu: it / this is
Math and Art: http://mathematicsaroundus.blogspot.com/

Last edited by anneke on Sun Aug 07, 2005 3:21 pm; edited 1 time in total
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Queen of Egypt
Queen of Egypt

Joined: 23 Jan 2004
Posts: 9305

PostPosted: Sun Aug 07, 2005 3:03 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Appendix: Conjugations

Strong verbs have an un-changing stem.
Redoubled verbs have a stem ending with a double consonant.

Weak verbs have a stem ending with (i): the -i is generally not spoken or used.

strong verb: sedjem (to hear)
redoubled verb: m3-3 (to see)
weak verb: mer(i) (to wish)


strong verb: stem
redoubled verb: stem
weak verb: stem (loosing -i) + t

e.g. sedjem (the hearing)

strong verb: infinitive + n + pronoun
redoubled verb: infinitive (double consonant becomes single consonant) + n + pronoun
weak verb: infinitive + n + pronoun

e.g. sedjem-en-ef (he heard)

Standard Present:
strong verb: infinitive + pronoun
redoubled verb: infinitive + pronoun
weak verb: infinitive + pronoun

Specific Present:
strong verb: her + infinitive + pronoun
redoubled verb: her + infinitive + pronoun
weak verb: her + infinitive + pronoun

e.g. sedjem-ef (he hears)
her sedjem-ef (he's hearing)

(not to be confused with Standard Present)

strong verb: infinitive + pronoun
redoubled verb: infinitive (double consonant becomes single consonant) (+ n) + pronoun
weak verb: infinitive (+ y) + pronoun

e.g. sedjem-ef (may he hear)

special cases:
in(i) (to bring): in + t + pronoun e.g. int-ef (may he bring)
iw(i) (to come): iw + t + pronoun e.g. iut-ef (may he come)

Specific Conjugations

(form is often similar to infinitives, so meaning mostly follows context)

Imperfect (present):

strong verb: infinitive
redoubled verb: infinitive
weak verb: stem (without -i) + er

Perfect (past):
strong verb: infinitive
redoubled verb: infinitive (double consonant becomes single consonant)
weak verb: stem (without -i)

e.g. sedjem (the one who hears / the one who heard)

Relative forms:

Imperfect (present):

strong verb: infinitive + t + pronoun
redoubled verb: infinitive + t + pronoun
weak verb: stem (without -i) + er + pronoun

Perfect (past):
strong verb: infinitive + t + en + pronoun
redoubled verb: infinitive (double consonant becomes single consonant) + t + en + pronoun
weak verb: stem (without -i) + t + en + pronoun

e.g. sedjemet-ef (what he hears)
sedjemeten-ef (what he heard)

ty.fy forms:

strong verb: infinitive + ty.fy
redoubled verb: infinitive + ty.fy
weak verb: stem (without -i) + ty.fy

e.g. sedjem-ty.fy (the one who will hear)


Gunn's rule is applied here: the negations in Past and Present are opposite to the affirmative forms.

e.g. sedjem-ef (he hears) becomes en sedjem-en-ef (he dusn't hear) while
sedjem-en-ef (he heard) becomes en sedjem-ef (he didn't hear)

future: enen + infinitive + pronoun
present: en + infinitive + en + pronoun
past: en + infinitive + pronoun
Math and Art: http://mathematicsaroundus.blogspot.com/
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