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Horus Military Route , the military road to Canaan.

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Location: Belguim

PostPosted: Thu Jan 05, 2006 6:43 pm    Post subject: Horus Military Route , the military road to Canaan. Reply with quote

The Great Horus Route

In spite of the divergent opinions of Egyptologists as regards the beginning of the military route or what is called " The Great Horus Route" illustrated in the battle relief of King Seti I in the columns court of the Karnak Temple, as having 12 fortresses and military compounds, yet they agree upon the route's real existence.

Egyptologists have discovered until now 4 fortresses, two at Qantrah Sharq (Eastern Qantarah) at Tell Habouh and Tell Al-Borg; the third in Bir Al-Abd; the fourth in the Kharoub area near Al-Arish.
But the largest is that of Tell Habouh which had been previously the old Pharaonic Fortress of Tharou, the first to be built on the great military route. This was confirmed by the Anastasy Papyrus which bears variegated drawings inscribed by Thutmose III.

The fortress embraced a station of the Egyptian army, the barracks of the soldiers and the houses of the officers; the central stores of the State and a stable. In fact, it is an important discovery because it constitutes a model of Ancient Egypt's military architecture, and the
Egyptian strategy, through different ages, for the protection of the entirety of Egypt.
It presents, likewise, a pattern of the Egyptian commander and soldier, three thousand years ago, while founding this great edifice and defensive line in the form of a series of fortresses and military cities.
According to an old Pharaonic script, the Tharou Fortress had been chosen by the Egyptian military strategy, to be at the end of the line separating the green line from the yellow one. It was the first to be fortified by two parallel walls, followed by 11 fortresses acting as early alert points before the arrival of any conquering army to the strategically located Tharou Fortress. In the same area there was an economic society, indicating that it had been a commercial and customs zone where customs taxes were collected before reaching the Delta.

The most significant discovery by the American mission in Tell El-Borg was a collection of blue-coloured pottery dating back to the 18th Dynasty; a drawing of King Ramesses II;
earthen jars bearing the seals of Tutankhamun, a matter which indicates that the Horus route had been used by several Pharaonic kings such as Thutmose III, Ramesses II,
Memeptah and Horemheb.

The discovered earthen jars which date back to El-Amarna Era, indicate that there had been economic relations between Thebes in Upper Egypt and Tharou area, famous for exporting the jars containing the best wine at the time; this is an indication also that this area of East Qantarah (Assalam Canal at present) had been planted with grapes.
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Joined: 21 Jul 2005
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Location: Belguim

PostPosted: Thu Jan 05, 2006 7:26 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Tell el Borg

The site of Tell el-Borg is located less than 5 km east of the Suez Canal, near Qantara. The excavations have been led by Dr. James Hoffmeier of Trinity University. Unfortunately, the site has been heavily disturbed by ancient and recent looting, as well as a large-scale irrigation project. At the site are the the remains of large-scale mudbrick fortification walls, several inscribed limestone blocks deriving from a Ramesside-period temple, and many fine examples of foreign and Egyptian pottery. During the New Kingdom, the site of Tell el-Borg formed part of a chain of forts and way-stations strung along the north Sinai coast, protecting the routes between Egypt and the civilizations of the Near East. These routes are known to us as "The Ways of Horus".

Perhaps the most significant historical discovery in this area was two stamped jar handles with the cartouches of Neb-kheperu-ra (Tutankhamun) and Ankh-kheperu-ra wa-en-ra (Smenkhekara). The latter is especially significant given the limit number of surviving references to this monarch.


During excavation 2001 they found a "stepped" stone pit. The steps are made of reused talatat. They also found a second stamped vessel with a cartouche of Tutankhamun.
Towards the end of the season 2001 they discovered a good collection of potsherds at the top of the fill in Fosse D. Included in this group was a stamped jar handle with the cartouche of Smenkhkara (cnh hprw rc). Since this fosse was filled in order to build phase two of the fort (i.e. Wall C), it suggests that Phase 2 was constructed at the very end of Akhenaten’s reign or just after his death.


During excavations in 2002 half dozen small, mud-brick tombs were uncovered that were made to entomb a single individual. One actually contained the remains of the bottom of a clay coffin. These tombs are all oriented with the head pointing to the west, and appear to date from the late mid-18th and into the 19th Dynasties. A ring with the seal of Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep III. was discovered beside on of these tombs. It was probably left behind by the robbers because it was made of faience and not gold.


Excavation 2004
Potsherd with cartouche of Thutmose III stamped on it.
Potsherd with cartouche of Akhenaten stamped on it.


Excavation season 2005 continued to produce more of the REED HUTS like those uncovered in previous seasons. A 15th century date for some of the huts had been assigned based on the Egyptian and Canaanite potsherds found within them. A garbage pit for this little village was discovered which yielded hundreds of potsherds, but more significantly a stamped jar handle with the cartouche of Neferneferu-aten (the successor of Akhenaten, ca.1336 B.C.) and a seal impression with the name of Pharaoh Horemheb (1323-1295 B.C.). These finds suggest that the reed-hut village was occupied for a long period of time.


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PostPosted: Thu Jan 05, 2006 9:34 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

That looks really interesting Rozette.
Thanks for all the links as well.
That's something I will definitely get back to when I have more time.
Math and Art: http://mathematicsaroundus.blogspot.com/
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