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Horemheb
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Segereh
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2004 8:22 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

He first build his mastaba in Saqqara but after becoming pharaoh he ordered to cut a tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Horemheb's tomb there (KV57) was unfinished, although it is very interesting. Possibly because of his northern origins, Horemheb abandoned the traditional layout of royal tombs and had his constructed along a single, straight axis. The tomb was found in 1908 and contained the remains of four individuals. The mummy of King Horemheb has not been identified.

Anyone here with suggestions what would've happened to his mummy?
That one really puzzles me.
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Segereh
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2004 8:27 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Valley of the Kings - KV57
tomb of Horemheb - XVIIIth Dynasty

The tomb was discovered on February 22nd 1908 by Edward R. Ayrton, working for the American Theodore Davis. The corridors are long, maintaining the trend of enlarge in their height and width and descend. The first pillared hall is much more square than before and the burial chamber is notable for a two pairs of pillars and the steps to the crypt with pink granite sarcophagus, which containing a skull and several bones. The plain lid, removed in antiquity and thrown to the ground, had shattered across an old break which had previously been repaired by means of butterfly cramps. The royal sledge sarcophagus and coffins were represented by several small fragments of cedar wood and acacia tenons incised with the king's throne name. The alabaster canopic chest smashed and scattered in antiquity, was also recovered and has been restored. Royal mummy is not yet identified.

The tomb is especially noteworthy because the decoration in the burial chamber was left in various stages of completion from preliminary sketches to finished painted relief. This is the first tomb in the Valley of the Kings to include the Book of the Gates, a text that describes the nightly journey of the sun god through the world of the dead.

KV 57 is located in the west branch of the southwest wadi. The tomb's opening, just above the Valley's ancient floor, is low in the south side of a hill that projects eastward into the central wadi from the cliff face where KV 35 (Amenhetep II) is cut. Three sloping corridors (B, C, D) lead to a well chamber (E) and a pillared chamber (F). A side descent and two sloping corridors (G and H) lead to chamber I giving access to the burial chamber J. This has side chambers (Ja-Je), also with side chambers (Jaa, Jbb, Jcc, Jccc). The tomb represents a transition in tomb architecture from the bent axis plan, characteristic of Dynasty 18, to the straight axis royal tombs of Dynasties 19 and 20.

The decoration is composed of representations of deities (well chamber E, chamber I, gate J, side chamber Jb), Horemheb with deities (well chamber E, chamber I), and scenes from the Book of Gates (burial chamber J).

Noteworthy features: This tomb descends with the steepness of earlier tombs in the Valley of the Kings, but several unique features were added. A ramp descending to a set of stairs was cut between the pillars of the burial chamber J; a second set of stairs was cut beside the first. Both lead to a crypt on a lower level. Also, a lower side chamber (Jaa) was cut beneath side chamber Ja. The decoration in the burial chamber and other parts of the tomb was left in various stages of work, allowing scholars to study the processes involved in preparing painted relief. KV 57 is the first tomb to show the Book of Gates.

Quote:
Axis in degrees: 357.72
Axis orientation: North

Site Location
Latitude: 25.44 N
Longitude: 32.36 E
Elevation: 173.242 msl
North: 99,518.773
East: 94,026.915
JOG map reference: NG 36-10
Modern governorate: Qena (Qina)
Ancient nome: 4th Upper Egypt
Surveyed by TMP [Theban Mapping Project]: Yes

Measurements
Maximum height: 5.36 m
Mininum width: 0.66 m
Maximum width: 8.94 m
Total length: 127.88 m
Total area: 472.61 m²
Total volume: 1328.17 m³

Additional Tomb Information
Owner type: King
Entrance location: Base of sloping hill
Entrance type: Staircase
Interior layout: Corridors and chambers
Axis type: Straight

Decoration
Grafitti
Painting
Raised relief

Categories of Objects Recovered
Embalming equipment
Furniture
Human remains
Jewellery
Models
Sculpture
Tomb equipment
Vegetal remains

Site History
No remains of Horemheb were found, but evidence exists that the tomb was at one time sealed, at least from gate F onwards. The broken lid of the sarcophagus found lying on the floor, as well as the shattered condition of the canopic chest and other burial furnishings, suggest that the burial was robbed. Several hieratic inspection dockets from Dynasty 21 may record temporary caching of burials here before they subsequently were removed, perhaps to KV 35.

Dating
This site was used during the following period(s):
New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, Horemheb
Third Intermediate Period, Dynasty 21

History of Exploration
Ayrton, Edward Russell (1908): Discovery (made for Theodore M. Davis)
Ayrton, Edward Russell (1908): Excavation (conducted for Theodore M. Davis)
Davis, Theodore M. (1912): Mapping/planning
Burton, Harry (1923): Photography (for the Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Service des Antiquités (1934): Conservation
Hornung, Erik (1971): Photography (shot in color)
Supreme Council of Antiquities (1994-): Conservation

Conservation
Conservation history: In 1934, the Service des Antiquités carried out some restoration work in chamber I. Following the closure of the tomb after the 1994 flooding, conservation work has been carried out (particularly in rooms E, I, and J) and walkways and lighting were installed.

Site condition: Significant portions of the painted decoration and blue background have flaked off the walls in well chamber E and chamber I. When discovered, much damage had already happened to the pillars and ceiling of the burial chamber. The blocking of the doorway in the north (rear) wall of well chamber E had been broken through in antiquity, resulting in damage to some of the painted scene that covered it. Damage to the decoration around gates I and J also occurred. This damage has since been repaired.

Flooding in the Valley in October and November 1994 caused water to enter the tomb and although much was caught in the shaft of well chamber E, some water seeped across the bridge over the shaft and entered the lower chambers.


This comes entirely from the site of Theban Mapping Project but I was unable to give a direct URL.
So for the ones not familiar with the site...
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Segereh
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2004 8:32 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Forgot to insert a picture (from which the A,B,C... come):

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Segereh
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2004 8:36 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Now I know this is a bunch again. Hope you don't mind.
Main sources were an excellent polish site and the before mentioned TMP site.
Have a nice reading and please point me to my mistakes. Smile
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anneke
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2004 9:40 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

On the TMP site it says:

Quote:
No remains of Horemheb were found, but evidence exists that the tomb was at one time sealed, at least from gate F onwards. The broken lid of the sarcophagus found lying on the floor, as well as the shattered condition of the canopic chest and other burial furnishings, suggest that the burial was robbed. Several hieratic inspection dockets from Dynasty 21 may record temporary caching of burials here before they subsequently were removed, perhaps to KV 35.

\0

Are there any unknowns in KV 35 who could be Horemheb? It is possible of course that the robbers destroyed the mummy completely.
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Segereh
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2004 9:46 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

In the 21st Dynasty KV 35 was used as a cache for the mummies of Thutmose IV, Amenhotep III, Merneptah, Sethi II, Siptah, Ramses IV, Ramses V, Ramses VI, an anonymous female called the "Elder Woman" (maybe Tiye, the wife of Amenhotep III), and another mummy, said to be probably of Setnakht. The mummies remained undisturbed until they were discovered by Victor Loret. The mummies of Amenhotep II (for whom the tomb was cut), his son Websenu, and probably his mother Hatshepsut Meryt-Re were found together with the remains of the cached burials.
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Segereh
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2004 9:47 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Would that be the one they found in a 'boat' and crumbled to dust in touching it?
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2004 9:52 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote



The "body on the boat", indeed from KV35 - the only known photograph actually of the now destroyed mummy.

"There is good evidence to suggest the mummy of Ay was moved into the tomb of Horemheb during the time of restoring the royal burials. Eventually, that tomb's contents were robbed and smashed apart. Either Ay's mummy was destroyed at this time, or it has yet to be identified. His bones may still have been in Horemheb's tomb when it was discovered." and "It seems that Horemheb's tomb (KV57) was used to store various mummies during the period of restoring the royal dead. Whether he himself was moved before the tomb's eventual destruction is unknown - no trace of him was found at DB320 - and it is possible that he was among the several skulls and bones found in his tomb when it was discovered in 1908."

"Setnakht's tomb (KV14) was used to house the mummies of Seti II, Siptah, Rameses IV and Merneptah - and all four were subsequently found in the tomb of Amenhotep II. As for Setnakht himself, his coffin, coffin lid and parts of his cartonnage were found in KV35 - suggesting that he was also moved there. When found, the tomb contained a stripped mummy that had been thrown onto a ceremonial boat. This mummy was destroyed in a robbery of the tomb in 1902 - and it seems likely that this was the body of king Setnakht."

Hmm, so apparently that very likely was Sethnakhte's corpse.
And Horemheb's might have vanished in history. Sad
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2004 9:57 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I looked at the book tombs, treasures and mummies by Dennis Forbes.
The royal mummies seem to have been found in 2 main caches: The Deir-el-Bahari cache and the KV 35 cache.
In KV 35 we find: Amehotep II, Thutmose IV, Amenhotep III (?), Merneptah, Seti II (?), Siptah, Tausret(?), Ramses IV, Ramses V, RAmses VI, and then the trio from the side room of course.



The identification of the mummy of Amenhotep III is in debate due to the manner of mummification. The limbs of the body have been stuffed with resinous material. This had not been done before, and later (21st dyn) they packed the mummy with other types of materials. So, dating the mummy is difficult. The coffin and shroud are inscribed with the name of Amenhotep III.
The man was estimated to be between 40 and 50 at death (possible for Amenhotep III, bit young for Horemheb?). He stood 1.56 m tall (5'1")

The mummy of Seti II however, was embalmed in a manner that more closely resembled that of the 18th dynasty. He is also more "Thutmosid" in appearance.
Some have suggested that this is Thhutmosis I, but his ears are pierced in a manner not seen until after the reign of Thutmosis IV.
A candidate for being Horemheb?????
It doesn't say how old this man was when he died. (Just says middle aged)
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anneke
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2004 10:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

In Amarna Letters Vol 4 Davis is quoted:

The last and largest room contained the sarcophagus of Harmhabi, made of red granite - 8ft 11 inches in length, 3 feet 9 1/2 inches wide and 4 feet high - in perfect condition, and one of the most beautiful ever found. Also in this room were many interesting objects - a germinating form of Osiris ... and a number of small gods. 10 in. high, made of wood and painted black, which surrounded the sarcophagus.
In the Osiris room there were the bones of two women found. In the room of the sarcophagus the skull of 2 women and one man were lying on the floor, and in the sarcophagus there were the bones of one person. Dr. Elliot Smith kindly examined these bones and named them, but could not decide upon the gender of those in the sarcophagus.


Interesting enough Dr Smith later wrote:
In the sarcophagus were the remains of a mummy, but what became of it is unknown. In spite of what Mr. Davis has written in the volume dealing with this tomb, the bones were not submitted to any examination at the time of their discovery.

So I guess it's a bit of a mystery what happened to the mummy that was in the sarcophagus.
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Serenity78
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PostPosted: Thu Aug 05, 2004 2:24 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

So this is where you two are.... Should have known! How are you Anneke and Segereh?
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PostPosted: Thu Aug 05, 2004 3:09 pm    Post subject: Horemheb's coffin? Reply with quote

Quote:
Are there any unknowns in KV 35 who could be Horemheb? It is possible of course that the robbers destroyed the mummy completely.

When the mummy of Ramesses II was found in the Royal Cache at Deir el Bahri, it was found in a seemingly re-used wooden coffin that dated on stylistic grounds to the late 18th Dynasty, post-Amarna period, which would mean that it can only have been originally intended for Aye, Horemheb, or possibly even, Ramesses I. The features on the face of the coffin, although by no means conclusive evidence, do bear a similarity to the faces on Horemheb's canopic jars, which have been restored and are now in the Cairo museum. So Horemheb might have been present, if mis-identified, in the royal cache, or his mummy could have been completely destroyed before the 21st Dynasty, and his remaining coffin selected for the restoration of Ramesses II's mummy.

Here is a link to the coffin in question:
Coffin used for Ramesses II

~Russell
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Segereh
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PostPosted: Thu Aug 05, 2004 3:33 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Serenity78 wrote:
So this is where you two are.... Should have known! How are you Anneke and Segereh?

Very good, thank you. Smile
Happy to see u perky as ever. Wink

Good point on the coffin, Nej.
Never stood still to whom it belonged first.
You'd think though, when the coffin's preserved that well...
that the mummy belonging to it would've survived.
Maybe it did - but perhaps not for long: hard to tell.

It sure looks like an unfinished coffin though.
Maybe it was never used? Doesn't change the possibility belonging to Horemheb.
It sure reminds me of one of Tut's outer coffins - should look up a picture...
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PostPosted: Thu Aug 05, 2004 3:43 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote



Two drops of water if you ask me - even the same condescending look. Smile
This coffin is said to be someone else's than Tut's again. So the both of em might well be from one and the same king, preceeding Tut. If these both could've been made for a pre-Amarna king, would it be going to far to ask: suggestions? Smile
In fact, the closest thing we've got to royal coffins before Tutanchamon and after the 17th dynasty are those of Yuya, Tuya and the one of KV55, said to be Achnaton's. Not really representative, I'd think, so it wouldn't exclude the pre-Amarna age for a source of both coffins.
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anneke
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PostPosted: Fri Aug 06, 2004 1:22 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Serenity78 wrote:
So this is where you two are.... Should have known! How are you Anneke and Segereh?

Hello Serenity

Aren't we usually all over the board Cool (literally and figuratively I think)

Things are going great. How about yourself?

I think I should come up with something Horemheb related to get back to the topic Laughing
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