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Tutankhamun's Funary Mask, Damage?
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Edgeman
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PostPosted: Wed Jul 21, 2010 2:54 am    Post subject: Tutankhamun's Funary Mask, Damage? Reply with quote

Greetings All.
I am new to this forum, and it is readily evident that I have come to the right place from the threads and posts that I have read here.
The knowledge and passion that is displayed here warms my heart and spins that little propeller that is on the top of my cap!

In several hours of online searching, including my well spent time at this site, I am yet to find any reference to the damage, and I assume that it is damage and not a design feature, that is seen in the funary mask on the right side of the collar. (It's right and on the left side of photos etc...).
It appears to be a deep indententation, if not a through hole with part of the decorative stone missing as a subsequent affect.
I expected to find some reference of this in Carter's notes or in those of his associates, but am suprised to find none. Could this be because they caused the damage? Doubtful in my eyes.

I cannot decide if I can see the damage in the Burton photos before the mask is removed from the coffin or not. I believe that I can see it. It is clearly visable in the later Burton photos after it is removed.

http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/perl/gi-ca-qmakedeta.pl?sid=200.21.123.146-1279679280&qno=1&dfnam=256a-p0750a

Help!!
Thanks in advance!
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anneke
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PostPosted: Wed Jul 21, 2010 12:48 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I see what yu mean. It does look like a serious dent to me in the later photographs. I cannot really see it on the mask when it is still in situ.

Looking at the images @ wikimedia commons:
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Treasure_of_Tutankhamun

The images of the mask do still show the damage. So no one has tried to restore it.

Hard to say if the "dent" is something that happened in antiquity or something that happened in the 20 th century.

Can't remember reading anything about it in the literature.

Quote:
The knowledge and passion that is displayed here warms my heart and spins that little propeller that is on the top of my cap!

LOL That made me laugh. Keep that beanie going!
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herper
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PostPosted: Wed Jul 21, 2010 2:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I remember reading awhile back that the mask suffered damage during shipment between museums on one of the tours. That is why it will never leave Egypt again from what I remember.
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herper
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PostPosted: Wed Jul 21, 2010 2:28 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

looking at the pics again, I see 2 areas that seem to be dents. Both are on the nemes, one is on the front right side, approximately at the height of the top of the pectoral collar. The second is less clear but again on the headress on the right side when in profile look about at the center width wise and towards the base, there seems to be a dent. In a couple of days I will try to copy the pcs and highlight what I see. Seems that the stripes had heavy damage that was restored, so why not these.
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stephaniep
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PostPosted: Wed Jul 21, 2010 3:40 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

There's this as well.

http://www.nicholasreeves.com/item.aspx?category=Writing&id=332

Putting aside the political hot-button of mask ownership, some other stuff seems to have happened too.
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herper
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PostPosted: Wed Jul 21, 2010 6:34 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I wonder if the masks from Tanis show the face as a separate piece ? Also , wouldnt you make the basic parts for important grave goods ahead of time? If the owner wanted changes, modifying would have been cheaper and faster on no longer owner approved items. This seems plausible especially during Amarna, when artistic, political and religion all changed many times.
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Edgeman
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PostPosted: Wed Jul 21, 2010 10:59 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

herper wrote:
I remember reading awhile back that the mask suffered damage during shipment between museums on one of the tours. That is why it will never leave Egypt again from what I remember.


The damage is clearly visable in other Burton photos, after it is removed from the mummy/coffin, so I don't believe that this damage comes from shipment between museums. In fact, I believe that the photo referenced here:
http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/perl/gi-ca-qmakedeta.pl?sid=200.21.123.146-1279679280&qno=1&dfnam=256a-p1545
was taken in KV15 before transport to Cairo. I'm not sure of the date of this photo.
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Edgeman
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 22, 2010 3:17 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Sorry, in checking sources, I am not sure if the photo in my last post was in KV15 or in Cairo. I went from memory, silly me.
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Ranoferhotep
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 22, 2010 12:02 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

In the last picture you show, the ceremonial beard is missing! So damages have a cured during the excavation. When the mask was discovered the ceremonial beard still looks attached to the mask.

http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/perl/gi-ca-qmakedeta.pl?sid=200.21.123.146-1279679280&qno=1&dfnam=256a-p0750a

As you can see in the pic I give here, there are traces of resin on the mask, which were used at the time of the burial. They had to melt that resin, in order to lift the mask out of the coffin. It was literally “glued to the bottom” according to Carter. It seems not unlikely that in that process pieces of the inlay could have come loose. As I recall, Carter stated they had to apply great heat to solve all the resin used. Even using zinc plates to protect the coffins in that process.
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neseret
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 22, 2010 6:22 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Almost every item within an archaeological find is never as pristine as we see it later. However, that said, the Burton photo, which shows the mask on a stand, is exactly how the item looked at the VoK after the item had been conserved. I say conserved, because of this statement, discussing the king's double uraeus crown:

...on the right side the Nekhbet vulture head of massive gold, beak of horn-coloured glass, eyes missing (? of obsidian).

Yet in the Burton photo, the obsidian eyes of Nekhebet are in place. So either they were found (very likely), or they were replaced with substitutes.

I doubt there were "dents" as people seem to see on the in situ photo of the mask in the coffin: likely, B&W photography being what it was in the 1920's, you are seeing debris from the resin and some of the broken flowers off the garlands which were laid at the mummy's throat.

So, I would caution against making too much of what you think you "see" in the photo, as you don't have the best resolution to declare an item as "dented", particularly when said dent doesn't appear in the same area when the item is cleaned only a month later (the Burton photo of the same item on the stand). All cleaning and conservation (replacing broken or missing bits, etc.) took place onsite, but "beating" dents into a smooth surface as we see today would not have been possible, IMO, which is why I say it's probably a trick of the eye.

I suspect Reeves may be making too much of the mask being made necessarily for a "female king" as it is the scarab hung suspended from the mask which has the cartouche (anx-xpr.w-ra, mr nfr-xpr.w-ra)|, "Akhkeperure chosen by Neferkheperure (Akhenaten)", which is the title associated most with said "King Neferneferuaten." So, the heart scarab may be so associated with this king, but it says nothing that the mask is so associated.

I suspect the mask was made in stages: after all, the various parts would have to be cast and joined together. Is it possible that another face graced the Tutankhamun mask? It is possible. Is it automatically that of the "female king", Neferneferuaten? That is only speculation, and without much support.

Other items in Tutankhamun's tomb have only the name "Ankhkheperure", which was also the throne name of Smenkhkare, without the associated /mr nfr-xpr.w-ra/ epithet: so we are probably talking about reused funereal equipment from several royal sources being used for Tutankhamun.

Reused items do exist within Tutankhamun's tomb, and changes to deisgn are evident on his funerary equipment, such as the solid gold coffin of Tutankhamun (Partridge 1996). I think we should understand this means only that Tutankhamun's funeral probably called for this type of reuse, since the king died unexpectedly and at a relatively young age (that is, he had not enough time to develop all of his own funerary equipment before his death).

We already know that the second coffin, the canopic coffinettes, and several shabti are reused fron "Ankhkheperure" and "Ankhkheperure chosen of Neferkhepeure," and many items in the tomb are named as belonging to other royal individuals (Meritaten, Nefertiti, Akhenaten, etc.), which is why KV 62 is considered a cache tomb (made up of objects from several different royal owners).

Reference:

Dodson, A. 1992. KV 55 and the end of the reign of Akhenaten. In VI Congresso Internationale di Egittologia Atti, 1: 135-139. Turin: International Association of Egyptologists.

________. 1994. The Canopic Equipment of the Kings of Egypt. Studies In Egyptology. London: Kegan Paul International.

Partridge, R. B. 1996. Tutankhamun's Gold Coffin: An Ancient Change in Design. Göttinger Miszellen 150: 93-98.

Reeves, N. 1990. The Complete Tutankhamun: The King - The Tomb - The Royal Treasure. London: Thames and Hudson. (Gives a list of reused and "heirloom" items with other royals' names thereupon).

HTH.
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Toth
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 22, 2010 6:35 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Perhaps it is me, or my glasses are deceiving me, but I followed Anneke's link, looked at the photo's and couldn't find any dent on these photo's, so... what is everybody talking about?

Richard, aka
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2010 2:41 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Neseret wrote:
Quote:
I suspect Reeves may be making too much of the mask being made necessarily for a "female king"

I wasn't sold on that either (I can think of better choices for an original owner), but I assumed he was correct on the face being replaced.

Would you know when a Pharoah would start to create his burial equipment? I assumed all that went into motion when the tomb started to be built. But I was wondering what the protocol would be for a juvenile Pharoah, as so many of them were. Congratulations, you've stopped growing (or attained some age), we can make the coffin now. They can't have waited until death for that. I guess earlier wood coffins like Kamose and Seqenenre Tao II could have been executed within 70 days, but surely not sarchophagi or gold coffins.
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anneke
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2010 2:46 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Toth wrote:
Perhaps it is me, or my glasses are deceiving me, but I followed Anneke's link, looked at the photo's and couldn't find any dent on these photo's, so... what is everybody talking about?

Richard, aka


If you look at this foto:
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tutanchamun_Maske.png

Look at the bottom of the neck, pan left and you will see a dent/hole in the side of the mask (in the nemes headdress to be specific)

Anneke
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Toth
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2010 8:31 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

anneke wrote:
Toth wrote:
Perhaps it is me, or my glasses are deceiving me, but I followed Anneke's link, looked at the photo's and couldn't find any dent on these photo's, so... what is everybody talking about?

Richard, aka


If you look at this foto:
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tutanchamun_Maske.png

Look at the bottom of the neck, pan left and you will see a dent/hole in the side of the mask (in the nemes headdress to be specific)

Anneke


Good Morning, Anneke

Like if someone had tried to hang it on a very large nail? Yes, I can see it... now, funny, a dent/hole like that should have been noticed before, shouldn't it? Idea
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Osiris II
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2010 1:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Did anyone read neseret's reply?
I have to agree with her.
To me, there is no visible dent in the Burton photos.
I think any that is seen in other photos is just, as she says, a "trick" of the eye. If you expect to see something, and stare at it long enough, something will be seen! Laughing
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