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Viceroy of Kush

 
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Segereh
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PostPosted: Sun Jun 20, 2004 3:12 pm    Post subject: Viceroy of Kush Reply with quote

Since I started something about female titles on the "Titles of Nobility"-thread, I thought it would be more appropriate to write this one down in here. I'd want to shed some light on the title of "Viceroy of Kush", but first I'd want to give a small oversight of the main titles and positions to be held in Ancient Egypt government, something which would've been quite suitable - and was actually the point - in the "Nobility"-thread. Smile

Believe it or not, this really is meant to keep discussions separated. Cool

The structure of government in the New Kingdom is given as such:
The King is the overall ruler.
His immediate “departments” are these:
- the Royal Dynasty
- the Internal Government
- the Government of Conquests


The Royal Dynasty exists out of the Crown Prince (sa nesoe tepy, though there’s enough debating on the various names he has been given), the Great Royal Wife (hemet nesoe weret) and the other relatives of the King by descent or marriage.

The Internal Government exists out of 4 subdivisions:
- the Royal Domain: the Court, under the lead of a Chancellor (imy-er sedjaoety) and a Chamberlain (imy-er achenoety) + the Royal Estates under the lead of a Chief Steward (imy-er per-oer-en-neb-tawy). These were in charge of the Royal Bureaucracy.
- the Army and Marine, under the lead of a Commander in Chief (imy-er mesja-oer), assisted by two Chief Deputies (idenoe en-mesja), one of the Northern Corps and one of the Southern Corps. They were in charge of the General Officers (imy-er mesja) and their bureaucracy. Their influence went over the town and village levies, the military villages and the internal garrisons.
- the Religious Government: lead by the Overseer of Prophets (of all the gods) of Upper and Lower Egypt (imy-er hem-netjeroe (en-netjeroe-neboe) noe Sjemaoe Mehoe). This very important and influential post was held at various times by a Vizier or the High Priest of Amon (hem-netjer tepy en-Imen). He was the superior to every High Priest in Egypt, who in their turn were the leaders of their respective priesthoods and temple bureaucracies. A rather independent position was given to the God’s Wife of Amon (hemet-netjer en-Imen) who would often be the Great Royal Wife.
- the Civil Government was organised rather complicated. You first had the Northern Vizier (tjaty Mehoe) and the Southern Vizier (tjaty Sjemaoe), who were in charge of overall bureaucracy, judiciary and police activity. Those lower echelons were formed by the village chiefs (tjesoe), the town mayors (haaty-a) and town councils (kenbet). Lower in rank than the viziers, but not for certain under their direct influence were the 2 Overseers of the Treasury (imy-er per-hedj) and - since Akhenaten - a Chief Taxing Master (ahaa en-sjet). Then there were the Overseer of the Granaries of Upper and Lower Egypt (imy-er sjenoet en Sjemaoe Mehoe) and the Overseer of Cattle (imy-er menmenet). It is not sure whether these last 4 officials were either under direct King’s supervision or under the influence of the Southern Vizier.

The Government of Conquests was divided in two main departments. One comprising the Governors of Northern Lands (imy-er chasoet mehyoet neb) who were in charge of vassal kings in the Syro-Palestine regions and of the local Battalion Commanders (hery pedjet). The other one being the Governor of Southern Lands, the Viceroy of Kush (imy-er chasoet resyoet, sa nesoe Kush), in charge of the Deputies of Wawat (idenoe en Wawat) and Kush (idenoe en Kush) and in charge of the one Battalion Commander of Kush (hery pedjet en Kush). The deputies in their turn held control over the mayors (haaty-a) of Egyptian centres and the chiefs (oer) of indigenous groups.

I know these are all quite dry data, but I promise I'll start something on Nefertiti Ankhet-Cheperoe-Re soon enough, to give a little more food for discussions. Cool
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PostPosted: Sun Jun 20, 2004 4:27 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Segereh wrote:
The Government of Conquests was divided in two main departments. One comprising the Governors of Northern Lands (imy-er chasoet mehyoet neb) who were in charge of vassal kings in the Syro-Palestine regions and of the local Battalion Commanders (hery pedjet). The other one being the Governor of Southern Lands, the Viceroy of Kush (imy-er chasoet resyoet, sa nesoe Kush), in charge of the Deputies of Wawat (idenoe en Wawat) and Kush (idenoe en Kush) and in charge of the one Battalion Commander of Kush (hery pedjet en Kush). The deputies in their turn held control over the mayors (haaty-a) of Egyptian centres and the chiefs (oer) of indigenous groups.


The honorary title of sa nesoe Kush is always given to the (appointed) Viceroy of Kush. Literally this means "son of the king" and stresses the importance of this function. It is generally seen as a function of equal importance (however a little less all-overshadowing) as that of the (Southern) Vizier. He shared no important administrative power with the local chieftains and was in direct command over the supreme general of Egyptian forces in Nubia (the Battalion Commander of Kush). This gave him an immense range of power.

The first Viceroy was probably installed by Kamose, the last king of the 17th dynasty, after landing a blow on the Nubian kings in preparation of his raids on Avaris, the Hyksos-capital. The name of the title itself only appears since Thutmose I though. There were some 30 viceroys untill the end of the reign of Ramesses XI, when the lands of Kush were lost for Egypt. Collecting tributes and taxes and safeguarding the exploitation of the Nubian gold-mines seem to have been the Viceroy's main worries, but his military power should not be disregarded because of that. Merymose, Viceroy under Amenhotep III, conquered cities and the entire region of Ibhet because of its gold-mines. Panehesy (literally "The Nubian"), the last known Viceroy of Kush (he seems to have been succeeded by at least one more, but independent Viceroy), marched on to Thebes during the days of Ramesses XI and Herihor. He exerted real power over the South of Egypt for a while, but his empire crumbled because of bad organisation and internal unrest.

Here's a list of Viceroys, known to me:

Turi - rule of Thutmose I
Seni - rules of Thutmose I & II and first years of Hatshepsut
Amen-em-nekhu - rule of Hatshepsut (Inebni as another Viceroy is still discussed)
Nehi - rule of Thutmose III
User-Satet - rule of Amenhotep II
(...)
Merymose - rule of Amenhotep III
(...)
(Amenhotep) Huy - rule of Tutankhamen
Paser I - rules of Aye & Horemheb
(...)
Iuni - rule of Sethi I
Amenemope - last years of Sethi I, first years of Ramesses II
Hekanacht - early years of Ramesses II
Huy - early middle years of Ramesses II
Setau - later middle years of Ramesses II
Paser II - late years of Ramesses II
(...)
Panehesy - rule of Ramesses XI
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PostPosted: Sun Jun 20, 2004 5:12 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

After some searching I finally found a mentioning of Akhenaten's Viceroy of Kush. Peter Der Manuelian states there are two stelaes, from Buhen and Amada (both in Nubia), recording a miltary campaign to quell a Nubian uprising under Akhenaten. At the head of the expedition stood a Thutmose, Viceroy of Kush. I wonder why his name has been preserved like that.

In "Napatan Temples: A Case Study from Gebel Barkal" Timothy Kendall wrote:
Akhenaten's presence at Gebel Barkal is further attested by a fragmentary statuette of his Viceroy of Kush, Thutmose, which was found beside the small talatat structures "south" of the B 500 pylon.9 Akhenaten's activities are also manifested in the erasures of the images of Amun on the Barkal Stele of Thutmose III (Reisner and Reisner 1933a, 25, pl). They are also seen in the erasures of the names of Amun on the statue of Amenhotep III from B 700 (Dunham 1970, fig. 5) and the fragmentary statue found in debris "south" of B 904 (Reisner Diary, Jan. 7, 1920).


Something I wanted to add before on Kush being divided into Wawat and Kush: Wawat was the most northern region of Nubia, stretching out from just South of Elephantine up to the second cataract. From there on to the fifth cataract lay the southern region of Kush.

Something else I wanted to add: in the time of Panehesy's uprising, the priest-king Herihor made himself a counter-Viceroy of Kush.

The same author wrote:
The events at the end of Dynasty 20 have never been fully explained, since their causes are nowhere expressed. There are only allusions to ambiguous events. Initially a High Priest of Amun at Karnak had to be "suppressed" and at least some faction of the priesthood rose in revolt against the authority of the reigning king, doubtless Ramses XI (ca. 1100-1070 BC), who was resident at Memphis. This king's alienation from Amun is suggested by his unprecedented throne name "Setep-en-Ptah." A later text refers to this tumultuous episode as the "war of the High Priest," which implies that it was no small affair. The troubles also involved Nubia, for the Viceroy of Kush Panehsy apparently came to the aid of the king by invading the Thebaid with his Nubian troops and warring against the priestly establishment, which was heavily armed. Neither side prevailed, although the struggle went on intermittently for years.

By Year 19 of Ramses XI (ca. 1080 BC), Herihor, the supreme military commander of the Theban forces, declared himself High Priest of Amun and Viceroy of Kush in opposition to Panehsy, who still retained control of Nubia and who must still have been loyal to the king. Herihor's move indicates a Theban attempt to wrest control of Kush from a royal official and to bring it squarely under the rule of "the god". At this same time, Herihor announced the dawn of a new dating era, called the wehem mesoet ("Repeating Births"="Renaissance"), which was to be used for dating in the South while the regnal years of the king were used concurrently for dating in the North.

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 20, 2004 5:34 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

After Herihor and the nameless successor to Panehesy, the title of Viceroy of Kush disappeared, since there was no Egyptian rule over Kush anymore. That changed during the 25th dynasty, but not like it could've been expected: Egypt came under Kushite rule. Except for one small revival the title would never come up again since 1050BC.

The title was revived for a short while and in a rather curious way under High Priest Pinudjem II (990-969 BC). One of his two wives, a certain Nesikhons, held a remarkable series of titles, revealing that her official duties involved almost exclusive devotion to Amon of Western Thebes, the goddesses who were involved with his sexual appeasement, and Khnum of Elephantine. Nice, no? Cool

TourEgypt wrote:
Neskhons was the well known wife of Pinudjem II, was described on a coffin bearing her name as first chief of the concubines of Amen-Re, King of the Gods and as prophetess of Anhur-Shu, the son of Re, as prophetess of Min, Horus, and Isis in Ipu. She is also described as prophetess of Horus, lord of Djuef, god's mother of Chons the child, first one of Amen-Re, King of the Gods, and as chief of noble ladies.


She was also called "Superintendent of the Southern Foreign Lands and Viceroy of Kush". One would suspect that her responsibilities as Viceroy in Nubia were no longer political or military but purely magical, since Kush was simply not a part of Egypt anymore. Perhaps her duties involved ritually stimulating a phallic image of the god in the Theban area, whose "pacification" was then thought to be magically transferred to the deity in Nubia.

If u had the feeling to go #Shocked there: I'm not making this up. Smile
But it gets worse. Confused

Such activities on the part of a "royal" woman, being the alter-ego of Hathor as "Mistress of the Vulva" and perhaps the "pacified Eye of Re" as well, might have been thought to satisfy the god at the Source, not only to ensure the inundation but perhaps even to provide magical protection to any would-be Egyptian king or prelate seeking to regain the White Crown. Here u have to know the Nubians revered a god called Amani, linked to the sun and the Nile and closely related to the Egyptian Amon.

The Semna inscription of Karimala/Katimala, a probable daughter of Osochor (984-978 BC, also known as Osorkon, one of the predecessors of the later Lybian dynasty but actually ruling in the 21th dynasty) and probable wife of Siamun (978-959 BC), also fits into this period and seems to be the record of a futile Nubian campaign in the 14th regnal year of Siamun, possibly attempting to re-connect "the two Karnaks". This wouldn't work untill Kashta and Piankhy imposed their Nubian rule over Egypt during the 25th dynasty. At that moment the two Amons and the two Karnaks were "re-united".

Quite a detour from the original subject, but what the hell... Thought it was interesting. Smile
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 21, 2004 9:48 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

According to Morkot, the area under the Viceroy of Kush was divided in two under the reign of either Amenhotep II or Thutmosis IV.
Upper Nubia (Kush) and Lower Nubia (Wawat) were each under control of an official who reported to The Viceroy of Kush. The Voceroy himself was often Egyptain, but many of the high administrators were Nubians.

It is interesting that Iuny, Viceroy under Sety I and Ramses II was "Wer-Prince of the Medjayu". This indicates that there's a possibility that he was actually a Nubian, and not an Egyptian.
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 21, 2004 9:58 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

anneke wrote:
According to Morkot, the area under the Viceroy of Kush was divided in two under the reign of either Amenhotep II or Thutmosis IV. Upper Nubia (Kush) and Lower Nubia (Wawat) were each under control of an official who reported to The Viceroy of Kush. The Voceroy himself was often Egyptain, but many of the high administrators were Nubians.

Segereh wrote:
The other one being the Governor of Southern Lands, the Viceroy of Kush (imy-er chasoet resyoet, sa nesoe Kush), in charge of the Deputies of Wawat (idenoe en Wawat) and Kush (idenoe en Kush) and in charge of the one Battalion Commander of Kush (hery pedjet en Kush). The deputies in their turn held control over the mayors (haaty-a) of Egyptian centres and the chiefs (oer) of indigenous groups.

Segereh wrote:
Something I wanted to add before on Kush being divided into Wawat and Kush: Wawat was the most northern region of Nubia, stretching out from just South of Elephantine up to the second cataract. From there on to the fifth cataract lay the southern region of Kush.


One of these higher officials is Heqanefer, one of the "three chiefs" of Wawat, depicted in Huy's tomb, the Viceroy during Tut. He would have appeared to be Nubian, though it's considered rather an exception, i thought.

anneke wrote:
It is interesting that Iuny, Viceroy under Sety I and Ramses II was "Wer-Prince of the Medjayu". This indicates that there's a possibility that he was actually a Nubian, and not an Egyptian.


Nubian nobility indeed. Smile
Where did u get that one?
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 21, 2004 10:11 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I misread the comment about Deputies of Wawat and Kush. (The 's' disappeared when I read it...)

Morkot does add that the Viceroy position was created under Kamose (and as you mention earlier), and was divided this way after some 150 years.
There seemed to be a bit of eb and flow in the polulations of Nubia. Wonder if there was just population growth and extra revenues that required the split.
Was this not too long after the job of Vizier was split? Maybe it had to do with duality? The two lands?


The part of Iuny also comes from Morkot.
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 1:25 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

anneke wrote:
There seemed to be a bit of eb and flow in the polulations of Nubia. Wonder if there was just population growth and extra revenues that required the split.


Honestly I'm not a hotshot in demografy. Confused

annie wrote:
Was this not too long after the job of Vizier was split? Maybe it had to do with duality? The two lands?


I doubt it there was a symbolic intention to it.
A division comparable to that of the vizier-hood seems logical, to devide power among several persons, not letting an individual get too much power. Perhaps there was a need for a more see-through administration as well, but actually I thought it came forth out of the later conquests: Wawat was an Egyptian territory under the first Viceroys, while the actual Kush was only gradually conquered in later times.
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 22, 2004 4:55 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

You're probably right. That does seem to be too much power in the hands of one person.
Would be tempting for a person to strike out on their own at a time of weakness in the Egyptian lands.
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 23, 2004 1:27 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

The Viceroy you have named as Turi, is sometimes called Tjuroy.

On Touregypt it says:

Quote:
Tjuroy was an official in the court of 'Ahmose I (1550-1525 B.C.) during the 18th dynasty, and probably Amenhotep I as well. Tjuroy was the son of 'Ahmose-Sitayet, the viceroy of Nubia. An hereditary nobleman, he inherited his fathers titles and the office of regulating the affairs of the lands below the cataracts.


So Ahmose-Sitayet must have been viceroy under Ahmose, possibly Kamose?
Could really have had a Viceroy before that? I don't think the Theban Princes had enough power to deputize a Viceroy of Nubia.
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 23, 2004 1:32 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

In earlier times the deputy in Nubia was called "governor of the lands below the First Cataract", which was the Old Kingdom equivalent of the viceroy of Nubia.

Some examples:

Ibi 6th Dynasty (son of Vizier Djau) <- It's not what you know, but who you know?
Pepy-Nakht - reign of Pepi II
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 23, 2004 11:52 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Sounded like nepotism (Djau)... Smile
Actually I don't believe the title existed with the same essence before Thutmose I. I don't find it hard to imagine people had a similar function since the north of Kush had been occupied by Kamose. But this was simply not the same function as the one a Viceroy of Kush would've held, ruling over a much bigger and more complicated territory than ever before.
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 23, 2004 11:58 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Making Turi (reign of Thumose I) Tjuroy (reign of Ahmose, probably Amenhotep I) sounds like a stretch though. Ahmose would've ruled some 25 years, Amenhotep I did a nice 21 years. Thutmose I only ruled some 12 years, but if Tjuroy was an official and viceroy of Nubia during Ahmose's reign for sure, he would have had to wait at least 21 years to get the title of Viceroy of Kush. He would've been very old already and probably senile or something. It's possible, but it sounds a bit off.
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 23, 2004 2:38 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I looked at Breasted's "records"

He mentions a man called Thure. This man served under Ahmose, Amenhotep I, Thutmosis I, Thutmosis II, and Thutmosis III

He was made Viceroy under Thutmosis I.
Breasted mentioned that he is the first known Viceroy.

It may be that he had a father who was something like "governor"

There's also mention of a Stela of Harmini (reign of Amenhotep I) who was the chief magistrate of Nekhen-Hierakonpolis and was later promoted to the governorship of Wawat in Lower Nubia.
He was in charge of the "tribute" from Wawat. This was later in the hands of the Viceroy.

Touregypt is usually fairly good, but once in a while they get their details wrong.

Breasted's records were compiled in 1906 though, it's possible that further discoveries were made to change some ideas.
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 28, 2004 6:01 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Just saw a reference to a female Viceroy of Kush!

stela of the 'great one of the musical part of Amun-Re, king of gods, priestess of Satet, (female) viceroy of Kush, overseer of the Southern Lands' Neskhons. The stela dates to the 21st Dynasty. Many women hold important administrative positions at that time (Török 1997: 108-109)




from:
http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/nubia/viceroy.html
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