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Questions from a newbie - Part 1

 
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AbbyCat
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 18, 2009 1:19 am    Post subject: Questions from a newbie - Part 1 Reply with quote

Hello all! I stumbled across this forum last night while doing some research. I read a bunch of posts on various topics and was impressed at the knowledge many members have on this subject. I have been doing some research on some topics concerning deities from Ancient Egyptian religions. I was hoping that I could ask a few questions that I am having trouble clarifying and maybe get some recommendations for good books/articles/essays on the topics I am curious about.

A quick note - Many of my questions have to do with my research into the parallels between Jesus and Egyptian deities. I want to be honest about that since this will likely become obvious based on the questions I ask. I want to be clear that I am NOT one of those Christ Mythers who spread, or believe in, the large amount of incorrect information that has been written on this topic. I know that there have been some issues on this board regarding this topic and I do not want to cause anymore chaos. But I have some serious, honest questions and hope someone can help. I am not looking to prove or disprove Jesus or make any kind of extreme conclusion like that. I am basically trying to cut through the b.s so I can make sense of the many theories and arguments that have been made on this topic. So here I go...

All of these questions are about deities from Ancient Egyptian mythology and religion (as opposed to the deities from later Mystery cults).

1. Was Isis ever referred to as a virgin, or the virgin?
2. Was Isis ever referred to as Isis-Meri? Does anyone know where this reference comes from?
3. Were there any deities that were born of a virgin in ancient Egyptian mythology?
4. Was there a time when monotheism existed in Ancient Egypt? I read about this in Budge's book but now know (from this forum) that Budge is FAR from the authoritative voice on the subject. He states that monotheism existed in Ancient Egypt and that the God figure paralleled Yahweh from the Old Testament. I am wondering if this monotheism claim is one that is generally accepted as true or not.
5. Was Osiris considered the "God of Resurrection"?
6. Was there ever a communion ritual consisting of bread and alcohol? This one confuses me because I found some passages in the Pyramid Texts that appear to be talking about some kind of communion ritual involving bread and beer, but I am a novice and know that my understanding could be WAY off.
7. I read a quote from the Book of the Dead (chap. clxxxii.,1.15). The alleged translation says that Osiris alone had the power of making "men and women born again". Is this translation right? I copied that chapter reference exactly, so I hope it is correct.
8. Is it true that models and symbols of ladders would commonly be put in tombs with the dead so that they could literally ascend to heaven?
9. I saw in another post someone here (I believe it was the woman who is the PhD student at Oxford) gave some book recommendations. One was, "Osiris: Death and Afterlife of a God" by Bojana Mojsov. A link was given to the book on google books. I saw that in the books description it says that the author "shows how the (Osiris) cult provided direct antecedents for many ideas, traits and customs in Christianity, including the concept of the trinity, baptism in the sacred river, and the sacrament of the Eucharist." Is this true? I plan on reading this book but was hoping for a quick confirmation of the validity of these claims. I do know that examples of a Holy trinity have been explained in this forum, but would like to know about baptism and sacrament of the Eucharist.
10. Can anyone recommend some good scholarly books, online articles or websites that might cover the bulk of these topics? I especially would like recommendations for books, websites or articles that discuss the early monotheism in Ancient Egypt. I would also like a good book to replace my Budge books. I have both volumes of "The Gods of the Egyptians". Now that I know Budge is considered a bad choice I would like to find a book that would cover the same stuff and be a reliable source! I do plan on reading 2 of the books I saw recommended on Osiris. One is the book by Mojsov that I mentioned above. The other book is: "The origins of Osiris and his cult" by John Gwyn Griffiths. Are these 2 good books that could give me a good base for Osiris?

...continued in next post...
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AbbyCat
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 18, 2009 1:23 am    Post subject: Questions from a newbie - Part 2 Reply with quote

I guess my post was too long because I couldn't post it without breaking it up into 2 parts. I'm sorry this is so long. I hope you guys don't hate me. Sad
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lastly, has anyone one here done much studying about the Mystery cults/religions that existed in the Mediterranean at the same time as when Christianity began (between the 1st and 4th centuries A.D.)? I know it is off topic from Ancient Egypt but the cults did use gods from Ancient Egyptian mythology. I know this subject can be a hard nut to crack since information about these cults is so scarce. They were secretive religions and purposely kept their rituals and teachings oral as opposed to keeping written records. The reason I want information about these Mystery cults is because much of the information being spread around about the parallels between Jesus and Osiris/Dionysus/Horus/Mithras is coming from these cults, NOT from the ancient religions surrounding these particular deities. I am trying to differentiate between the 2 sets of parallels - which traits have parallels with deities of Ancient religions and which traits are parallels with deities from Mystery cults in the 1st -4th centuries. I would also love some recommendations for books/websites/articles on the Mystery cults as well. If anyone has them. Smile I do plan on reading: "Ancient Mystery Cults" by Walter Burkert. I read that this is a good book on the subject.

This post is ridiculously long, I realize. Embarassed I really appreciate the time any of you take to read this and respond. I am happy I found this forum! I have read some great information here just since last night and look forward to reading more!

Cheers!
Abigail
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anneke
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 18, 2009 4:58 pm    Post subject: Re: Questions from a newbie - Part 1 Reply with quote

AbbyCat wrote:

1. Was Isis ever referred to as a virgin, or the virgin?

I don't think so. She is described as the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus, but I have never seen her described as a virgin.



AbbyCat wrote:
2. Was Isis ever referred to as Isis-Meri? Does anyone know where this reference comes from?

I cannot find any reference to Isis-meri as a person. I have seen references on the internet, but in each case the inscription actually says mery(t) Isis. This means beloved of Isis and is an epithet.
Queen Tiye Mer-n-Iset (mother of Ramesses III) is an example. The Men-n-Iset means beloved of Isis.
Kings were more likely to be called mery-amun (beloved of Amun)


AbbyCat wrote:
3. Were there any deities that were born of a virgin in ancient Egyptian mythology?

I don't think so. There are examples of Kings claiming to be sons of gods though.
There are inscription showing Mutemwia - mother of Amenhotep III - being visited by Amun. The god had taken the form of her husband, but it was the god who impregnated the queen.


AbbyCat wrote:
4. Was there a time when monotheism existed in Ancient Egypt? I read about this in Budge's book but now know (from this forum) that Budge is FAR from the authoritative voice on the subject. He states that monotheism existed in Ancient Egypt and that the God figure paralleled Yahweh from the Old Testament. I am wondering if this monotheism claim is one that is generally accepted as true or not.

From what I understand Akhenaten's religious reform comes the closest, but even Atenism is not true monotheism.
I think the monotheism claim is not generally accepted.

Other questions I can't say a lot about. I hope others know more. Very Happy
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 18, 2009 5:01 pm    Post subject: Re: Questions from a newbie - Part 2 Reply with quote

AbbyCat wrote:
I guess my post was too long because I couldn't post it without breaking it up into 2 parts. I'm sorry this is so long. I hope you guys don't hate me.


Very Happy No problem. Definitely NOT hate inspiring ....

I think kmt-sesh still has you beat by several paragraphs Laughing

AbbyCat wrote:
Lastly, has anyone one here done much studying about the Mystery cults/religions that existed in the Mediterranean at the same time as when Christianity began (between the 1st and 4th centuries A.D.)?

Interesting topic, but sadly one I don't know much about.

AbbyCat wrote:
I am happy I found this forum! I have read some great information here just since last night and look forward to reading more!

Nice to have you and glad you're enjoying yourself.
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AbbyCat
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 18, 2009 5:27 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thank you for your reply. You helped a lot. Especially about the Isis-Meri references I have seen. "Mer-n-Iset, Men-n-Iset" are epithets meaning Beloved of Isis. Very interesting. It's so crazy how things can get twisted, misconstrued and posted all over the internet. I am also going to spend some time later studying up on that example you gave me for the possible "monotheism". Unfortunately though I have to go to work now and do things far less interesting!

If anyone else has more information on these topics, I would love to read it! Smile
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 18, 2009 6:39 pm    Post subject: Re: Questions from a newbie - Part 1 Reply with quote

AbbyCat wrote:
Hello all! I stumbled across this forum last night while doing some research. I read a bunch of posts on various topics and was impressed at the knowledge many members have on this subject. I have been doing some research on some topics concerning deities from Ancient Egyptian religions...<snip>
A quick note - Many of my questions have to do with my research into the parallels between Jesus and Egyptian deities. I want to be honest about that since this will likely become obvious based on the questions I ask. I want to be clear that I am NOT one of those Christ Mythers who spread, or believe in, the large amount of incorrect information that has been written on this topic. <snip>

All of these questions are about deities from Ancient Egyptian mythology and religion (as opposed to the deities from later Mystery cults).

1. Was Isis ever referred to as a virgin, or the virgin?


The short answer is "no." The longer answer is, it depends upon your view.

If a goddess conceives her son from her dead husband through the use of magic to coax his seed from his moribund body to impregnate her, some (non-Egyptian) believers would see that as "virgin birth" since the male deity did not actively (or normally) impregnate her.

Isis and Osiris were bonded - myth says even while they were even in the womb themselves (they are part of two sets of twins that the sky-goddess Nut bore). They were inseparable in life and definitely considered a bonded couple (we would say, 'married').

But Osiris is set upon by his brother Sutekh (Set(h)) and is killed. His body is lost and it is found later by Isis - dead but whole. In this state, Isis can only restore a semblance to life to Osiris and while in this half-life state, she magically coaxes Osiris' seed with in her to conceive Horus.

When Isis' pregnancy comes to term, she leaves the body of Osiris to go to give birth to her son Horus and keep in safe within the marshes of the Island of Chemnis. Meanwhile, Osiris' body is again found by his brother Sutekh, torn into 14 pieces and tossed about the entire country of Egypt. Osiris' head is said to land in Abydos, thus making it the most sacred of places where his body parts are to be found, and established Abydos as the pilgrimage equivalent of Jeruslam, Mecca or Rome for modern believers.

The mourning Isis (and in some myths, her sister Nephthys) collects all these pieces, except one (the phallus), and with the help of Anubis (the son of a dalliance between Isis' sister Nephthys and Osiris), they create the first mummy, which reassembles Osiris. Howevere, this time, due to the loss of the one body piece, Isis cannot give life again to Osiris, but can only render a shade of a life to him. In this state, Osiris becomes the god of the underworld and all who die.

AbbyCat wrote:
2. Was Isis ever referred to as Isis-Meri? Does anyone know where this reference comes from?


As far as I am aware, there is no such epithet for Isis as a listed name or epithet for the goddess. However, in such a case, "mery/meri" (/mry/) only has the meaning of "beloved" in ancient Egyptian. Obviously, such an epithet could apply to Isis, in terms of her relationship to Osiris, but it's not a very uncommon term to applied to bonded couples in ancient Egypt.

However, the term "Mary", for which I think you are trying to make a connection, comes from the Latin, which means 'star of the sea.' As the Catholic Encyclopedia notes, this Latin term is most likely a derivation of Mary's name in Hebrew as a compound word, miryam, which is derived from a possible combination of two nouns:

A) mor and yam (myrrh of the sea);
B) mari (cf. Daniel 4:16) and yam (mistress of the sea); or
C) mar (cf. Isaiah 40:15) and yam (drop of the sea).

Whatever the origin of Mary's name, the "Egyptian connection" of her name is roundly rebutted by both Egyptological and theological scholars.

AbbyCat wrote:
3. Were there any deities that were born of a virgin in ancient Egyptian mythology?


There are quite few "virgin birth" stories throughout ancient mythology and not all concern deities. Myth, such as the one where as when Zeus impregnated Leda in the form of swan, causing her to give birth, or when he impregnated Danae while formed into a golden shower, leadig to the birth of Perseus, are all designated as "virgin births" since the human male consort (or lack thereof) has no direct part in the birth of the subsequent child.

Some consider the birth of Athena a "virgin birth" but the reality is that Zeus was married to her mother Thetis, and he consumed his pregant wife as part of a game, once he learned that her offspring would be greater than he, and he thought by consuming her that such a child would never be born. Thus while within the body of Zeus, Thetis came to term with Athena, bore her and raised her until she attained adulthood, and then her mother armoured her. The combination of Athena's growth and attire caused pain to Zeus' head, such that he begged the god Hephaestus (Vulcan) to strike him on the head to relieve the pain. When Vulcan/Hephaestus did so, out sprang the fully adult and armoured goddess of wisdom.

Meanwhile, in the Hindu Bhagavata Purana, one has Krishna born without a sexual union, but by "mental transmission" from the mind of Vasudeva into the womb of Devaki. Additionally, in the Mahabharata epic, Karna was born to Queen Kunti by the god Surya, before her marriage to King Pandu. Because she called him, the god of the Sun gave her a child, but restored her virginity, as she was as yet unmarried. After marriage, Kunti's husband, King Pandu, was cursed by a childless Brahmin, who declared that if the King were to embrace either of his two wives, then he would die. Kunti called upon the charm she had used to bear Karna in order to call other gods to her and her co-wife. In this way, the Pandavas were bestowed upon them by the gods. The implication, then, is that all six of these heroes (the five Pandavas and their brother Karna, the tragic antihero) were the results of pure, virgin births.

Likewise, many centuries later, the poet Kabir was also said to have been born of a virgin widow (a Brahmin), through the palm of her hand. Like Karna, Kabir was sent down the river in a basket; he was found and adopted by a family of Muslim weavers, downstream.

In South American mythology, Quetzalcoatl of the Aztecs and Toltecs of Mexico, along with his twin Xolotl, was a virgin birth, to the goddess Coatlicue, without any male deity or action whatsoever.

AbbyCat wrote:
4. Was there a time when monotheism existed in Ancient Egypt? I read about this in Budge's book but now know (from this forum) that Budge is FAR from the authoritative voice on the subject. He states that monotheism existed in Ancient Egypt and that the God figure paralleled Yahweh from the Old Testament. I am wondering if this monotheism claim is one that is generally accepted as true or not.


It is not true, and you are wise not to trust Budge. Recall that Budge was trying to appeal in his publications to a predominantly Judaeo-Christian audience, so implying (by some of the most obtuse reasoning I've ever see, BTW) that the Egyptians were not pantheistic (supplicants of multiple deities) in order to "relate" ancient Egypt to his listening and reading audience really does a disservice to ancient Egyptian religious concepts.

Budge was definitely using no real texts from ancient Egypt to make such a statement, as most of ancient Egyptian religion is actually a henotheism (acknowledging the existence of other deities, but holding one (or a family triad of deities) as primary in a supplicant's belief. Note this is NOT the same as a "monotheism" or even a "monolatry" (see below)).

There is a belief in the creation myths of ancient Egypt that, at one time, every creator deity in ancient Egyptian theology is the "only one" at some point of their of their existence, and then they create the world. However, such myths always acknowledge that in such a situation are "within the waters of Nun" (a deity who represented chaos) and so such a god is actually never "alone." However, it could be argued that such a deity is the "first" deity to exist to bring order, and thereby his/her act of creation which brings forth the universe, the earth, other deities and humankind makes him/her the "only" deity, but as a focus of worship, such a deity never actually is so acknowledged as a "sole" deity.

The creator deities (Atum, Ptah, Khnum, Neith, Amun) must always have other deities about them and they exist in constant interactio with other deties. The Egyptologist Erik Hornung calls this concept a "complementarity" between gods (one fulfils the other), while the Egyptologist Jan Assmann proposes that these interrelationships between Egyptian deities portrays their "constellative" relationship with one another, where their functions/powers "overlap" each other to carry out the purposes of creation itself.

Som argue that Akhenaten, with his single deity, the Aten, "created" monotheism. This is also not true, as Akhenaten did acknowledge other deities besides the Aten (in laying out Akhetaten, for example, Akhenaten specifically makes allowances that he took no land that belonged to the god Thoth, and acknowledged that the god Ptah still ruled from Memphis and the god Re from Heliopolis).

However, Akhenaten did refer to his deity as "unique" which meant, in Egyptian theology, that the deity did not have a family triad, and did not have other deities with which the deity interacted. This makes Atenism, as Akhenaten's relgious belief is called, a monolatry (the worship of a single god but without claiming that it is the only god).

AbbyCat wrote:
5. Was Osiris considered the "God of Resurrection"?


No: Osiris could not "resurrect" you mainly because the ancient Egyptians did not believe in resurrection, which is the active re-animating of the dead.

Osiris judged your deeds on earth and made the decision (along with the 42 assessors of the dead) whether or not your life actions were good enough to allow you entrance into the afterlife. If found worthy, your /kA/ and /bA/ were joined together to form the /Ax/ (akh), which existed in a very static and eternal way in the plane of the afterlife, but never again on this plane of existence.

The body was never thought in ancient Egyptian thought to "resurrect" - ever. Such a thought would have horrified the ancient Egyptians.

AbbyCat wrote:
6. Was there ever a communion ritual consisting of bread and alcohol? This one confuses me because I found some passages in the Pyramid Texts that appear to be talking about some kind of communion ritual involving bread and beer, but I am a novice and know that my understanding could be WAY off.


You are "way off". Consuming of "bread and beer" was the same as saying, in ancient Egyptian, "I eat and drink for food." Bread and beer are, in essence, the common foodstuffs in ancient Egyptian everyday life and there was no more meaning attached to consuming these items than me saying that for breakfast I have cereal and orange juice.

AbbyCat wrote:
7. I read a quote from the Book of the Dead (chap. clxxxii.,1.15). The alleged translation says that Osiris alone had the power of making "men and women born again". Is this translation right? I copied that chapter reference exactly, so I hope it is correct.


You are using the Budge translation, which, as you already know, is aimed for a Judaeo-Christian audience. However, that is not what it says, when you translate the text from Egyptian.

My reading of several sources for Spell 182 says that it says

Hail to thee, Foremost of the Westerners [Osiris], who re-fashioned mankind (men and women), who comes out as one rejuvenated in his time, better than he was formerly! (Faulkner translation)

Hail to thee, presider over the westerners [the dead], begetter of all mankind (men and women) anew, so that misery is forgotten and happens not, who comes as a youth in his season - how much better than [his predecessor]...! (T. G. Allen translation)

As you can see, no mention of ...making "men and women born again". As I said before, the ancient Egyptians would have been horrified of the idea of bodily resurrection - rejuvenation in the afterlife is quite a different matter.

In the Egyptian mindset about what happens after death, one's tired soul (at death) would be magically rejuvenated to that of a youth - able to exist eternally - but only on the plane of the afterlife - with the gods. As mentioned above, this entity is called an akh (/Ax/) - it is eternal, but it is not a "resurrected" person as conceived of in the Christian sense of the term.

AbbyCat wrote:
8. Is it true that models and symbols of ladders would commonly be put in tombs with the dead so that they could literally ascend to heaven?


No.

AbbyCat wrote:
9. I saw in another post someone here (I believe it was the woman who is the PhD student at Oxford) gave some book recommendations. One was, "Osiris: Death and Afterlife of a God" by Bojana Mojsov. A link was given to the book on google books. I saw that in the books description it says that the author "shows how the (Osiris) cult provided direct antecedents for many ideas, traits and customs in Christianity, including the concept of the trinity, baptism in the sacred river, and the sacrament of the Eucharist." Is this true? I plan on reading this book but was hoping for a quick confirmation of the validity of these claims. I do know that examples of a Holy trinity have been explained in this forum, but would like to know about baptism and sacrament of the Eucharist.


As I may be that "woman PhD student from Oxford" to which you refer, I don't recall suggesting this work. I doubt I would do so, unless I was merely pointing out that such books existed. However, I doubt much of Christianity is directly borrowed from ancient Egyptian religion - except for the concepts of hell and punishment, which developed during the post-Amarna period.

AbbyCat wrote:
10. Can anyone recommend some good scholarly books, online articles or websites that might cover the bulk of these topics? I especially would like recommendations for books, websites or articles that discuss the early monotheism in Ancient Egypt.


As monotheism is really NOT a part of ancient Egyptian religion, I can suggest no such works.

AbbyCat wrote:
I would also like a good book to replace my Budge books. I have both volumes of "The Gods of the Egyptians". Now that I know Budge is considered a bad choice I would like to find a book that would cover the same stuff and be a reliable source! I do plan on reading 2 of the books I saw recommended on Osiris. One is the book by Mojsov that I mentioned above. The other book is: "The origins of Osiris and his cult" by John Gwyn Griffiths. Are these 2 good books that could give me a good base for Osiris?


I would recommend only Griffiths' book, as it is a serious examination of the Osiris cult, and is considered one of the definitive works on the subject in Egyptology. I also would suggest

Baines, J. 1972. R. T. Rundle Clark's Papers on the Iconography of Osiris. JEA 58: 286-295.

el-Banna, E. 1989. A propos des aspects héliopolitains d'Osiris. BIFAO 89: 101-126. (Examining the solar aspects of Osiris, as linked to the sun-god Ra).

Beinlich, H. 1984. Die "Osirisreliquien". Zum Motiv der Körperzergliederung in der altägyptischen Religion. Ägyptologische Abhandlungen 42. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. (The author disputes a cult of "Osiris relics" but concludes that the annual Nile Inundation corresponds to the re-emergence of Osiris from death in a rejuvenated form.)

Bolshakov, A. O. 1997. Man and His Double in Egyptian Ideology of the Old Kingdom. Ägypten und Altes Testament 37. M. Görg. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Otto, E. 1967. Ancient Egyptian Art. The Cult of Osiris and Amon. New York: Harry N. Abrams.

Griffiths, J. G. 1991. The Divine Verdict. A Study of Divine Judgement in the Ancient Religions. Studies in the History of Religions (Supplement to Numen) 52. Leiden: Brill.

Preys, R. 1993. De Osirismysteriën en de tempel van Sethi I te Abydos. De Scriba (Leuven) 2: 1-55. (In Dutch)

Sadek, A. I. 1988. Popular Religion in Egypt During the New Kingdom. Hildesheimer Ägyptologische Beiträge 27. A. Eggebrecht. Hildesheim: Gerstenberg.

Tobin, V. A. 1989. Theological principles of Egyptian religion. American University Studies. Series 7, Theology and Religion 59. New York: Peter Lang.

Wegner, M.-A. P. 2002. The Cult of Osiris at Abydos: An Archaeological Investigation of the Development of an Ancient Egyptian Sacred Center during the Eighteenth Dynasty. Asian and Middle Eastern Studies. PhD Dissertation (Unpubl.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.

As you will see from a reading of these works, the emphasis on Osiris in Egyptian religion is closely linked to the concept of succession of the kingship (how a new king takes power/authority from his predecessor). By emphasising the concept of Osiris as the first king of Egypt, his subsequent death, his providing his own successor via his consort Isis even after death, and that offspring eventually becoming the divine king of Egypt, the myth of Osiris laid the groundwork for the succession principles of ancient Egypt.

With this myth providing a template for royal succession, every preceding king became "the Osiris" - every new (ruling) king became "the Horus". Thus the process repeated over and over in providing dynastic and administrative stability to the ruling house of Egypt.

The idea of Osiris as "Christ/Saviour figure" is a modern interpretation - something that the ancient Egyptians would not have recognised, IMO. To their point of view, Osiris is a divine king - of the afterlife. That's it.

Osiris rules the plane of existence of the afterlife where the dead exist - just as his son Horus holds sway as ruler of the living in the earthly plane of existence. Osiris does not grant "resurrection" nor salvation. He judges only what is wrong and right against a person's life on earth. If one or the other is adjudged, the souls of the dead either go into the afterlife or are consumed into oblivion, with no hope of afterlife existence. This oblivion judgment exists from the time of the Pyramid Texts, but it is only during the post-Amarna period, the oblivion judgement takes a form - that of Ammit, the Destroyer.

For most of pharaonic history, the afterlife was not a scene of "paradise", it was merely a reflection of the earthly Egypt of the living. One was expected to eat, work, drink, sleep, have sexual relations with one's spouse (if married), or engage other single individuals (if unmarried), and so on. The only difference between an ancient Egyptian's life on earth and his afterlife existence is that he/she was rejuvenated (NOT 'resurrected') into his/her ideal youthful form and remained as such in the afterlife as this eternal being, the akh.

Other publications I suggest and/or are referenced to by author in this post:

Allen, J. 1995. Genesis in Egypt: The Philosophy of Ancient Egyptian Creation Accounts. Yale Egyptological Studies (YES) 2. W. K. Simpson. San Antonio: Van Siclen Books.

Allen, T. G. and E. B. Hauser. 1974. The Book of the Dead or Going Forth by Day: Ideas of the Ancient Egyptians Concerning the Hereafter as Expressed in Their Own Terms. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization. SAOC 37. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Faulkner, R. O. and C. Andrews. 1985. The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead. Austin: University of Texas Press/British Museum.

Heyob, S. K. 1975. The Cult of Isis Among Women in the Graeco-Roman World. Études Préliminaires aux Religions Orientales dans l'Empire Romain 51. Leiden: Brill.

Witt, R. E. 1997. Isis in the Ancient World. Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins University Press.

I hope this assists.
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Doctoral Candidate
Oriental Institute
Oriental Studies
Doctoral Programme [Egyptology]
Oxford University
Oxford, United Kingdom
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AbbyCat
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 18, 2009 10:32 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thank you SOOOOO much Katherine! Great info. Smile You were indeed the "woman PhD student from Oxford" that I mentioned. I was hoping you'd reply.

I do have some follow up questions based on your responses. I hope to get to them tonight but it may take me a few days to reply. I have to finish up holiday shopping tonight and this weekend. Confused

-Abby

P.S. Thanks for the book list too! I will try and pick a few of them up this weekend while I'm out shopping.
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PostPosted: Mon Dec 21, 2009 12:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Oh what a thoroughly enjoyable discussion. And a wonderful reading list.
I am very interested in the goddess Isis and here I have good reference books about her too. Thank you SO much!

Leena Smile
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