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Tutankhamen's family
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anneke
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2010 12:13 am    Post subject: Tutankhamen's family Reply with quote

I know we are talking about this is other threads, but I came across this article in German:

http://www.wissenschaft-online.de/artikel/1022490

I find the results rather shocking to be honest.

1. Tut's father is the KV 55 mummy.
2. Tut's mother is KV 35YL

The article (quoting Hawass I think) is suggesting that This means KV 55 is Akhenaten and that the mother is a full sister of Akhenaten. This would leave Sitamen, Isis, Nebetah or even Baketaten as the mother of Tut? (Unless we argue that either Nefertiti or Kiya is a full sister of Akhenaten)

3. KV 55 and KV 35YL are son and daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye
4. Mummy KV 35 EL is now identified as Queen Tiye (supporting the identification of the hair lock in the case with Tiye's name as belonging to this mummy of the "Elder Lady")

5 The mummy of the elder lady is shown to be the daughter of Yuya and Tuya

6. It's possible that a female mummy from KV 21 is the body of Ankhesenamun.

7. In another line of inquiry Tut also seems to have suffered from malaria.
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2010 12:18 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Forgot to ask: what do we know about the mummies from KV 21?

I had heard before that there were two female mummies in that tomb.
I vaguely remember that they may have suffered some serious damage even in modern times?

There is another female mummy. Could that one be Meritaten?
How old are these individuals thought to be at the time of death?

From TMP:
"It has been suggested that the tomb was a queen's burial. Two female mummies were found, with their left arm crossed on their chest, a pose only used for queens. Vandals entered the tomb after its discovery in 1817, broke up the mummies, hauled them up to the first corridor B, and shattered some large white pots."
http://www.thebanmappingproject.com/sites/browse_tomb_835.html
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2010 12:57 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Freethinker wrote :
http://forum.egyptiandreams.co.uk/viewtopic.php?p=52281#52281

Results Genetic fingerprinting allowed the construction of a 5-generation pedigree of Tutankhamun's immediate lineage. The KV55 mummy and KV35YL were identified as the parents of Tutankhamun. No signs of gynecomastia and craniosynostoses (eg, Antley-Bixler syndrome) or Marfan syndrome were found, but an accumulation of malformations in Tutankhamun's family was evident. Several pathologies including Köhler disease II were diagnosed in Tutankhamun; none alone would have caused death. Genetic testing for STEVOR, AMA1, or MSP1 genes specific for Plasmodium falciparum revealed indications of malaria tropica in 4 mummies, including Tutankhamun’s. These results suggest avascular bone necrosis in conjunction with the malarial infection as the most likely cause of death in Tutankhamun. Walking impairment and malarial disease sustained by Tutankhamun is supported by the discovery of canes and an afterlife phar-macy in his tomb.

Conclusion Using a multidisciplinary scientific approach, we showed the feasibility of gathering data on Pharaonic kinship and diseases and speculated about individual causes of death.

Abstract (verbatim) courtesy of The Journal of American medical Association, full-text available on-line payable by subscription and/or one-time/one-use payment, at http://jama.ama-assn.org/
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2010 1:54 am    Post subject: FULL REPORT Reply with quote

ABSTRACT

Context  The New Kingdom in ancient Egypt, comprising the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties, spanned the mid-16th to the early 11th centuries BC. The late 18th dynasty, which included the reigns of pharaohs Akhenaten and Tutankhamun, was an extraordinary time. The identification of a number of royal mummies from this era, the exact relationships between some members of the royal family, and possible illnesses and causes of death have been matters of debate.

Objectives  To introduce a new approach to molecular and medical Egyptology, to determine familial relationships among 11 royal mummies of the New Kingdom, and to search for pathological features attributable to possible murder, consanguinity, inherited disorders, and infectious diseases.

Design  From September 2007 to October 2009, royal mummies underwent detailed anthropological, radiological, and genetic studies as part of the King Tutankhamun Family Project. Mummies distinct from Tutankhamun's immediate lineage served as the genetic and morphological reference. To authenticate DNA results, analytical steps were repeated and independently replicated in a second ancient DNA laboratory staffed by a separate group of personnel. Eleven royal mummies dating from circa 1410-1324 BC and suspected of being kindred of Tutankhamun and 5 royal mummies dating to an earlier period, circa 1550-1479 BC, were examined.

Main Outcome Measures[b]  Microsatellite-based haplotypes in the mummies, generational segregation of alleles within possible pedigree variants, and correlation of identified diseases with individual age, archeological evidence, and the written historical record.

[b]Results
  Genetic fingerprinting allowed the construction of a 5-generation pedigree of Tutankhamun's immediate lineage. The KV55 mummy and KV35YL were identified as the parents of Tutankhamun. No signs of gynecomastia and craniosynostoses (eg, Antley-Bixler syndrome) or Marfan syndrome were found, but an accumulation of malformations in Tutankhamun's family was evident. Several pathologies including Köhler disease II were diagnosed in Tutankhamun; none alone would have caused death. Genetic testing for STEVOR, AMA1, or MSP1 genes specific for Plasmodium falciparum revealed indications of malaria tropica in 4 mummies, including Tutankhamun’s. These results suggest avascular bone necrosis in conjunction with the malarial infection as the most likely cause of death in Tutankhamun. Walking impairment and malarial disease sustained by Tutankhamun is supported by the discovery of canes and an afterlife phar*macy in his tomb.

Conclusion[b]  Using a multidisciplinary scientific approach, we showed the feasibility of gathering data on Pharaonic kinship and diseases and speculated about individual causes of death.

[b]INTRODUCTION

The 18th dynasty (circa 1550-1295 BC) of the New Kingdom (circa 1550-1070 BC) was one of the most powerful royal houses of ancient Egypt. The pharaoh Akhenaten, who ruled from circa 1351 to 1334 BC, is considered one of the most controversial of the Egyptian pharaohs, because his attempt to radically transform traditional religion affected all facets of society and caused great turmoil.

Akhenaten's eventual successor, Tutankhamun, is probably the most famous of all pharaohs, although his tenure was brief. He died in the ninth year of his reign, circa 1324 BC, at age 19 years. Little was known of Tutankhamun and his ancestry prior to Howard Carter's discovery of his intact tomb (KV62) in the Valley of the Kings in 1922, but his mummy and the priceless treasures buried with him, along with other important archeological discoveries of the 20th century, have provided significant information about the boy pharaoh's life and family.

Because Tutankhamun died so young and left no heirs, numerous speculations on familial disease have been made. The presence of disease is further supported by numerous reliefs, statuettes, and other sculptures of Akhenaten and his family dating from the Amarna period (circa 1353-1323 BC). These artifacts show the royalty of that era as having a somewhat androgynous appearance or a bizarre form of gynecomastia. Specific diseases that have been suggested to explain this appearance include Marfan syndrome, Wilson-Turner X-linked mental retardation syndrome, Fröhlich syndrome (adiposogenital dystrophy), Klinefelter syndrome, androgen insensitivity syndrome, aromatase excess syndrome in conjunction with sagittal craniosynostosis syndrome, or Antley-Bixler syndrome or a variant form of that syndrome.1-4 However, most of the disease diagnoses are hypotheses derived by observing and interpreting artifacts and not by evaluating the mummified remains of royal individuals apart from these artifacts.

To shed light on the putative diseases and causes of death in Tutankhamun's immediate lineage, we first used molecular genetic methods to determine kinship within that lineage. Whereas some individual relationships were known from historical records, the identity of most of the mummies under investigation was still uncertain. We also searched specifically for pathologies, inherited diseases, and causes of death. For example, many scholars have hypothesized that Tutankhamun's death was attributable to an accident, such as a fall from his chariot or a kick by a horse or other animal; septicemia or fat embolism secondary to a femur fracture; murder by a blow to the back of the head; or poisoning.5-10 We had access to mummies that had never before been studied with the methods we used.

METHODS
Mummies

In addition to Tutankhamun, 10 mummies possibly or definitely closely related in some way to Tutankhamun were chosen for this 2-year project; of these, the identities were certain for only 3. In addition to these 11 mummies, 5 other royal individuals dating to the early New Kingdom were selected that were distinct from the putative members of the Tutankhamun lineage. These 5 mummies were used as a morphological (excluding Ahmose-Nefertari) and genetic (excluding Thutmose II) control group. All mummies are listed in Table 1, and full-body computed tomography reconstructions of the mummies are available here http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/303/7/638/DC1

Table 1. Characteristics of the Royal 18th-Dynasty Mummies Under Investigation (N = 16)http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content-nw/full/303/7/638/JOC05008T1

Radiology

All of the mummies, except for that of Ahmose-Nefertari, were scanned using a multidetector computed tomography unit (Somatom Emotion 6; Siemens medical Solutions, Malvern, Pennsylvania) installed on a truck. The tomography unit was used to examine the mummy of Tutankhamun and those of the 2 women from tomb KV35 in Luxor as well as the rest of the mummies at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (eAppendix). Cephalic indices of mummy heads were determined according to the method of Weber et al.11



Molecular Genetics

We adopted the previously published criteria for ancient DNA authentication, which form a consensus outline for executing research studies using ancient DNA (eAppendix).12-13 Sampling of bone tissue and DNA extraction and purification were performed according to protocols previously published.14-15 Negative and blank extraction controls were processed along with each sample. In addition, water and other aqueous polymerase chain reaction (PCR) components were monitored using the sensitive internal-Alu-PCR protocol16 to assess contamination with modern human DNA.

Sixteen Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y-GATA-H4, DYS437, DYS438, DYS448) were amplified according to the manufacturer's protocol using the AmpF\STR Yfiler PCR amplification kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, California). The Identifiler kit and the AmpF\STR Minifiler kit (Applied Biosystems) were used for amplification of 8 polymorphic microsatellites of the nuclear genome (D13S317, D7S820, D2S1338, D21S11, D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO, FGA).

To test for Plasmodium falciparum DNA, PCR primers were designed that specifically amplify small subtelomeric variable open reading frame (STEVOR), apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), and merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) gene fragments with sizes of 100 to 250 base pairs (bp). PCR products and cloned DNA fragments were sequenced by the Sanger method (eAppendix). Purified amplicons were run on a genetic analyzer (ABI Prism 3130, Applied Biosystems). Microsatellites were interpreted with Data Collection Software version 3.0 and GeneMapper ID version 3.2 (Applied Biosystems). Lasergene version 8.0 (DNAstar, Madison, Wisconsin) and BioEdit version 7.0.9 (Ibis Biosciences, Carlsbad, California) were used to establish multisequence alignments (eAppendix).

RESULTS

Kinship Analyses

To elucidate the genealogy in Tutankhamun's family, microsatellite markers were used to achieve genetic fingerprints of all mummies. All 8 females tested were negative for the examined polymorphic Y-chromosomal loci, underlining the specificity of the approach. The repeated search for hemizygous Y alleles in the males yielded few results, with differing success in the various markers contained in the multiplex PCR kit used. Markers DYS393 and Y-GATA-H4 showed identical allele constellations (repeat motif located in the microsatellite allele reiterated 13 and 11 times, respectively) in Amenhotep III, KV55, and Tutankhamun but different allelotypes in the nonrelated CCG61065 sample from TT320 (9 and 9, respectively). Syngeneic Y-chromosomal DNA in the 3 former mummies indicates that they share the same paternal lineage.

These results were repeatedly obtained with DNA extracted from 2 to 4 different biopsies per mummy; moreover, they differed from the Y profiles of the male laboratory staff and were independently reproduced twice in a second laboratory physically isolated from the first, data-generating laboratory.

An up to 30-fold testing of polymorphic autosomal microsatellite loci via the combined use of the Identifiler and AmpF\STR Minifiler kits (Applied Biosystems) yielded complete data sets for all 8 markers in 7 mummies (Thuya, Yuya, Amenhotep III, Tutankhamun, KV55, and both female mummies from KV35) but only partial data for both KV62 fetuses and the KV21A and KV21B mummies (Figure 1). Repeated attempts to complete the profiles in the 4 latter mummies were not successful; however, we were able to replicate some of the results for the previous mummies more than 4 times in the second, independent laboratory (Figure 1). Moreover, because these profiles differed from those of the laboratory staff and were not identical to the ones established for the control group, the data were considered authentic.

my goodness there's millions more... let me know if you want me to keep on copying it over - it cost $15 to get access and I am trying to save some of ya the pennies, but if you all have access already just say and I'll stop

/continued...

ps: perhaps someone could clean-up my tags, I seem to be messing some of them up in transferring this stuff, sorry Confused
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2010 2:00 am    Post subject: Reply with quote



Figure 1. Microsatellite Data of Mummies Thought to Belong to the Tutankhamun Kindred

The length of each microsatellite allele was determined in base pairs and converted by software into the number of actual reiterations of repeat motifs at the corresponding locus. All established genotypes differ from those of the laboratory staff and the ancient control group. Note that allele origins in KV21A and KV21B are suggestive and do not serve as proof of relationship with the Amenhotep III and Thuya lineages. See online interactive kinship analysis and pedigree here.
aIdentified as Tiye. See eAppendix for additional commentary.
bIdentified as Akhenaten. See eAppendix for additional commentary.
cData replication was successfully performed in the second Cairo laboratory.

Based on the partial Y-chromosomal information on the amount of autosomal half-allele sharing and family trio likelihood calculation, the most plausible 5-generation pedigree was constructed. We identified Yuya and Thuya as great-grandparents of Tutankhamun, Amenhotep III and KV35EL as his grandparents, and the KV55 male and KV35YL as his sibling parents (Figure 1, Figure 2, and online interactive kinship analysis and pedigree; for details on kinship statistics, see eAppendix).
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2010 2:03 am    Post subject: Reply with quote



Figure 2. Pedigree Showing the Genetic Relationships of the Tested 18th-Dynasty Mummies

Double line, indicating consanguinity, here represents a first-degree brother-sister relationship. Fetus 1 and fetus 2 can be daughters of Tutankhamun; however, the mother is not yet genetically identified. The data obtained from KV21A suggest her as the mother of the fetuses. However, the few data are not statistically significant to define her as Ankhensenamun. See interactive kinship analysis and pedigree.
aSee eAppendix for additional commentary on identity.
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2010 2:04 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Gynecomastia, Feminity, and Syndromes

The most prominent feature exhibited by the art of the pharaoh Akhenaten, seen also to a lesser degree in the statues and reliefs of Tutankhamun, is a markedly feminized appearance (eFigure 1A-C), reasonably suggesting some form of gynecomastia or Marfan syndrome as an underlying disease.1-4 However, putative breasts in Tutankhamun and his father Akhenaten (KV55) cannot be determined, because KV55 is a mummified skeleton and Tutankhamun lacks the frontal part of the chest wall. The penis of Tutankhamun, which is no longer attached to the body, is well developed. Furthermore, the pelvic bones of Tutankhamun are almost entirely missing, and the pelvis of KV55, which is present but fragmented, does not show feminine traits after reconstruction using computed tomography (eAppendix, eFigure 1D-G, and online interactive feature).

One of the obvious features of Marfan syndrome is dolichocephaly.17-19 With the exception of Yuya (cephalic index, 70.3), none of the mummies of the Tutankhamun lineage has a cephalic index of 75 or less (ie, indicating dolichocephaly). Instead, Akhenaten has an index of 81.0 and Tutankhamun an index of 83.9, indicating brachycephaly. From the control group, Thutmose II and the TT320-CCG61065 mummy show dolichocephaly, with cephalic indices of 73.4 and 74.3, respectively. Because there is no sign of premature closure of sutures, none of the skull shapes can be considered pathological. The complex diagnosis of Marfan syndrome is based on certain combinations of major and minor clinical features.18 Following this classification, a Marfan diagnosis cannot be supported in these mummies. (Table 2). Antley-Bixler syndrome is also excluded in Tutankhamun and Akhenaten because their brachycephaly is not attributable to craniosynostoses, and further signs of Antley-Bixler or other syndromes are missing or unspecific.
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2010 2:07 am    Post subject: Reply with quote



Table 2. Evaluation of Marfanoid Features in the Collection of Royal 18th-Dynasty Mummies Under Investigationa
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2010 2:08 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Pathology in the Royal Mummies

Tutankhamun's mummy was examined several times radiologically.20-23 Our inspection of the skull and trunk did not reveal novel information, but detailed examination of the king's feet yielded new data. Compared with the normal anatomy of the foot (Figure 3), the right foot had a low arch (Rocher angle, 132°; normal value, 126°). The medial longitudinal arch of the left foot was slightly higher than normal (Rocher angle, 120°) (Figure 4A), with the forefoot in supine and inwardly rotated position akin to an equinovarus foot deformity (Figure 4B). There were no pathological findings on the bone structure of the right metatarsal heads (Figure 5A). In contrast, the left second metatarsal head was strongly deformed and displayed a distinctly altered structure, with areas of increased and decreased bone density indicating bone necrosis (Figure 5B). The study further showed a widening of the second metatarsophalangeal joint space, with a normal articulating surface of the proximal phalanx. The third metatarsal head was only slighty deformed; the bony structure, however, showed signs of bone necrosis. The remaining left metatarsal heads appeared to be of normal structure (Figure 5B). The plantar surface of the left second metatarsal head shows a crater-shaped bone and a soft tissue defect in the area of bone necrosis (Figure 5C). The second and third toes on the left foot are in abduction. The second toe is shortened because it lacks the middle phalanx (oligodactyly [hypophalangism]). The proximal phalanx directly articulates with the distal phalanx (Figure 5D).
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2010 2:10 am    Post subject: Reply with quote



Figure 3. Normal Foot Anatomy
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2010 2:12 am    Post subject: Reply with quote



Figure 4. Analysis of Malformations in the Feet of Tutankhamun

A, As indicated by the angle between the axis of the first metatarsal and the line between the lowest point of the calcaneal tuberosity to the lowest point of the calcaneocuboid articulation (Rocher angle), the arch of the right foot is flat (132°) compared with that of the left (120°). The Rocher angle of a normal foot is 126°. B, The supine and inwardly rotated position of the left foot are further features of clubfoot.
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2010 2:15 am    Post subject: Reply with quote



Figure 5. Analysis of Pathology in the Feet of Tutankhamun

A, The heads of all metatarsal bones as well as metatarsal phalangeal articulations of the right foot are clearly discernable and completely preserved. B, In the left foot, the second metatarsal bone head (yellow arrowheads) shows signs of bone necrosis accompanied by anterior displacement of the second toe and widening of the second metatarsophalangeal joint space (white arrowheads). The third metatarsal bone head is similarly deformed (blue arrowheads), displaying features of bone necrosis as well. Metatarsal bone heads 1, 4, and 5 are normal in size and structure. C, The right foot shows no pathological findings. The second metatarsal bone head shows evidence of necrosis with loss of bone substance and soft tissue (yellow arrowhead). The second toe of the left foot lacks the middle phalanx (oligodactyly [hypophalangism], black arrowhead). D, The right foot shows no pathological findings. In the left foot, the second metatarsal head is necrotic (yellow arrowhead) and the second toe is missing the middle phalanx (oligodactyly [hypophalangism], black arrowhead), is anteriorly displaced, and the distal phalanx is subluxated.
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2010 2:17 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Except for Ahmose-Nefertari, all remaining mummies were subjected to radiological analyses. Along with various bony malformations (eg, cleft palate, kyphoscoliosis, clubfeet, flat feet) in the remaining mummies, indications of bone degeneration, neoplastic changes, and trauma were also found. These various findings are listed in Table 3 and are described in the eAppendix.



Table 3. Anomalies and Diseases in This Collection of 18th-Dynasty Mummies
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2010 2:18 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Infectious Diseases

Various infectious diseases are suspected or known to have been prevalent in antiquity,24-27 and some are described in remarkable detail in Egyptian papyri (eg, Papyrus Ebers, circa 1520 BC). Positive results were not found for pandemic plague (Black Death, bubonic plague), tuberculosis, leprosy, or leishmaniasis, but we identified DNA of P falciparum (the malaria parasite) in several of the royal mummies. Amplification of the P falciparum STEVOR gene family28 repeatedly yielded 149-bp and 189-bp amplicons for Tutankhamun and the TT320-CCG61065 mummy and also yielded a faint PCR band using DNA of the Yuya mummy. This result was replicated in further PCRs using DNA from other biopsies (for details on STEVOR data see eAppendix and eFigure 2).

To consolidate or disprove this result, we targeted a further Plasmodium gene using new DNA extracts from the royal mummies in our study. We identified 4 mummies as positive for AMA1, a merozoite protein responsible for the successful binding of the parasite to the erythrocyte membrane, by amplifying DNA fragments locating to the conserved region of the AMA1 gene (Figure 6). The AMA1 PCR fragments were obtained for all mummies testing positive in the earlier STEVOR assays (ie, Tutankhamun, Yuya, TT320-CCG61065). In addition, we also obtained a positive typing for Thuya. Repetition of these experiments in the second laboratory using DNA extractions from new biopsies confirmed the previous data (Figure 6; for details on AMA1 data, see eAppendix).
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 17, 2010 2:20 am    Post subject: Reply with quote



Figure 6. Identification of Plasmodial DNA in 18th-Dynasty Mummies

A, Polymerase chain reaction amplification of a 196–base pair (bp) apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) fragment of Plasmodium falciparum in Egyptian mummies. DNA marker indicates molecular size marker phiX/174 HaeIII. Successful amplification is indicated by "+." B, Independent replication of the AMA1 data shown in panel A.
aDifferent DNA extractions.
bIdentified as Akhenaten. See eAppendix for additional commentary.
cIdentified as Tiye. See eAppendix for additional commentary.
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