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The Mittani Tribe
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PostPosted: Sun Aug 22, 2004 9:53 pm    Post subject: The Mittani Tribe Reply with quote

After reading a few books about Egypt's struggle with the Mittani tribe, I was trying to find some info on them. Some websites say that Tushratta and the Egyptians made peace during the reign of Tuthmosis III, while other websites say peace was made between the two countries during the reign of Amenhotep III. Does anyone know in who's reign it was when the Mittani and Egypt made an alliance?
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PostPosted: Sun Aug 22, 2004 10:12 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Tushratta was king of Mitanni during the ages of Amenhotep III and Akhenaten. He's supposed to have ruled from 1380 to 1350BC. Dating the Mitanni kings (the Egyptian ones I mentioned actually as well) isn't an easy thing to do though. There are enough of theories around. Here's one of them. Wink

Kirta 1500-1490 BC
Suttarna I 1490-1470 BC
Baratarna 1470-1450 BC
Parsatatar 1450-1440 BC
Saussatar 1440-1410 BC
Artatama 1410-1400 BC
Suttarna II 1400-1385 BC
Artashumara 1385-1380 BC
Tushratta 1380-1350 BC
Mattiwaza 1350-1320 BC
Sattuara I 1320-1300 BC
Vashasatta 1300-1280 BC
Sattuara II 1280-1270 BC

Meanwhile in Egypt first we have Thutmose III, warring up to the borders of Mitanni, having frequent brawls with the rulers of Naharin ( a frequently used name for the most Western part of Mitanni). Then we have Amenhotep II, practically doing the same but sort of living in a cold war system with the rulers of Mitanni. Then his son Thutmose IV comes to the throne and establishes the true golden age of 18th Dynasty Egypt. He closes an actual friendship treaty with the kings of Mitanni and actually goes hunting there as well (surely a sign of good relations). So the past gets whiped clean... Now Artatama was the king of Mitanni during this time and eventually marries his daughter to Thutmose IV. Here the peace begins. Amenhotep III, the next Egyptian king, marries a daughter of Tushratta. The peace continues. Akhenaten comes to power and even then the good relations are kept alive between Egypt and Mitanni. Disaster striked though: Tushratta gets murdered, the Hittites invade Mitanni, making use of the apparently devastated state of the Egyptian kingdom and make it their vassal state. From now on Mitanni is "Hanalgabat". Akhenaten apparently still rallied his troops for the "liberation" of Mitanni, meaning he's risking an open war against the Hittite kingdom (not a commonly known fact), but he dies too soon to actually do so. Then Tutankhamen rises to power, rallies the troops again and attacks the Hittite kingdom directly. The attack on a border city happens so immensely clumsy though (I wonder where general Horemheb was at the time) that Mitanni is now forever lost as a friendly nation to Egypt. Instead the grasp of the Hittite kings on the land grows firmer and eventually lets nothing to be left of Mitanni. It becomes a genuine Hittite province.

To summarize and actually answer to your question. Smile
Peace existed from Thutmose IV - Artatama until Akhenaten - Tushratta.
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PostPosted: Mon Aug 23, 2004 12:14 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks, it finally makes sense Smile
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PostPosted: Mon Aug 23, 2004 6:31 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Glowing with pride. Cool
It's a fascinating country.
I've been looking for decent pictures of the Mitanni, but haven't found any of them yet.
Any suggestions where to go look?
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 24, 2004 3:36 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Just one quick question... Embarassed

I've read that when Hatshepsut was Queen, Tushratta was the Mittani king. Is this accurate? Looking at the time of their reigns, I would have thought than when Hatshepsut was Queen Baratarna was the Mittani king.
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 24, 2004 4:39 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I'll quote Bryce (Letters of the Great Kings of the Ancient Near East).
He gives a nice overview of the overlappings of Egyptian and foreign kings.
Keep in mind though that the previously mentioned data are only approximate.

Amenhotep II: Saussatar and Artatama
Thutmose IV: Artatama
Amenhotep III: Artatama, Suttarna II, Artashumara, Tushratta
Akhenaten: Tushratta
Tutankhamun, Aye, Horemheb: Shattiwaza/Mattiwaza
Ramses I, Sethi I: S(h)attuara I
Ramses II: Vashasatta, Sattuara II

About the Mitanni kings before Amenhotep II there's a lot of confusion though.
3 kings would've ruled during the reigns of Hatsh and Thutmose III.
These could indeed be the ones I mentioned.
Then Baratarna is a logical choice.

Still, these are not mentioned as far as we know in Egyptian sources.
And dating them is hard. Still, Tushratta surely didn't rule at the times of Hatsh.
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 24, 2004 5:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks Smile , I thought Hatshepsut and Tushratta didn't fit together.
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 24, 2004 6:25 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Found this :
Quote:
The Mitanni were an Indo-European (Hurrian) people whose kingdom in northern Mesopotamia flourished from about 1600 (Second Intermediate Period) until it was conquered by the Hittite King Suppiluliumas during the reign of Akhenaten. At its peak, the empire stretched from Kirkuk (ancient Arrapkha) and the Zagros mountains in western Iran in the east, through Assyria to the Mediterranean sea in the west. Its center was in the region of the Khabur River, where its capital, Wassukkani was probably located. Under King Saustatar (contemporary with Thutmose III), the Mitanni empire included such cities as Alalakh in northern Syria, and Nuzi, Kurrukhanni, and Arrapkha in Mesopotamia. The northern boundary dividing the Mitanni from other Hurrian states and the Hittites was never clearly fixed.


at http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/7987/mitann_1.html


Quote:
Originally the Mitanni were probably part of the Aryan people who finally settled in India, but it appears they, and some other of their race (including the Hurri), turned and settled in Mesopotamia instead. Their kingdom was a feudal state led by a Hurrian or Aryan warrior. The upper class in the cities consisted of a chariot-warrior caste, the maryannu, which bred horses on large country estates. The nobles received their land as an inalienable fief: land could not be sold. To get around this law, landowners arranged to sell land by "adopting" buyers for a prearranged sum of money. Sheep were raised for their wool, and the palace collected textiles to be exported to foreign markets. The social structure and legal system were well-organized and patterned after the Babylonian.

There have been few Mitanni settlements uncovered in Mesopotamia. There were large palaces for the ruling house even in small district capitals. These were decorated with frescoes. Small temples have also been found. The dead were probably buried outside of the towns. Small artifacts include seals that show Babylonian and Assyrian influence, especially in the naturalistic representation of the figures. Finely crafted ceramics were decorated in white on a dark background.


Would love to see a photo of those frescoes!
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 24, 2004 6:26 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I don't know who plagiarized whom, but the exact same text can be found at touregypt
http://www.touregypt.net/support/mitanni.htm
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 24, 2004 6:32 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hèhè, that happens a lot Smile
TourEgypt is a popular site to be copied.
Too bad it sometimes has some flaws...
Seeing them copied only makes it worse. Not talking

Anyway, Saussatar would've ruled during the reign of Thutmose III, father of Amenhotep II, but it's not sure for how long he did. The other two (or still three?) kings are very obscure and actually, only Tushratta and Shattiwaza/Mattiwaza are decently "covered". Probably the reason why Tush keeps popping up.
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 24, 2004 6:34 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Have u ever seen decent depictions of Mitanni art, structures, people?
Would be nice to see them. I only know of depictions on Egypt's temple walls.
But you can hardly call basing something on those exact science.
On the other hand, History just isn't.
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 24, 2004 6:37 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

No. I was doing a quick search and kind find a thing. I'm not sure how much of that has been excavated.
The site mentioned the temples, and the cities, but no mention of any depictions.
If they were influenced by assyrian and babylonian art, then it might be useful to look at those artifact. Although that description is pretty vague.
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 24, 2004 6:39 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Well, here's the seal of King Shaushatar Very Happy


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PostPosted: Tue Aug 24, 2004 6:44 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Cool, there's a first Smile
I think Hurrian influences could be most important.
Then again... I know nothing about Hurrians. Smile
I'll look it up a little, was thinking about that since the Ugarit-thread.
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 25, 2004 12:02 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I've also come across info saying that Tuthmosis III went into battle against King Saussatar during his reign. Would this be accurate?
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