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The Earliest Gods and Goddesses (pre/early dynastic)

 
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anneke
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 31, 2004 12:45 am    Post subject: The Earliest Gods and Goddesses (pre/early dynastic) Reply with quote

Some of the other discussions made me wonder:
What gods and goddesses were worshipped in early dynastic times?
I’m thinking pre-dynastic-2nd dynasty.

I have seen evidence of the following:
Horus – part of the names of the earliest pharaohs.
Seth – Seth was raised to the same prominence as Horus in the second dynasty (under Peribsen)
Wadjet - part of the name of the king (“two ladies name”)
Nekhbet - part of the name of the king (“two ladies name”)
Hathor – The cow-headed goddess is depicted on the palette of Narmer.
Neith - 1st dynasty Queens incorporated her in their names: Meryt-neith, Neith-hotep, Her-neith

There are possible kings in the 2nd dynasty named Neferka-Re and Neferka-Sokar.
Peribsen’s name refers to Maat (Nebti Sechemib Perenmaat)

In the second dynasty there was a shift from the solar god Netjer-akhti (under Hetepsekhemwy) to Ra (under Nebre)
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anneke
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 31, 2004 12:47 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

The most info (relatively speaking) comes from the reign of:

Ninetjer (3rd king DYN 2) From inscriptions we have:
Year 6 : (half erased) Shemsw Hor ; [sixth occurrence of the (biennal) count (of cattle)].
Year 7 : Appearance of the King of Upper Egypt ; stretching the cord for the 'Hwt Hrw Rn'
Year 8 : Shemsw Hor ; eight time of the cattle census .
Year 9 : Appearance of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt ; Race of the living Apis (?)
Year 10 : Shemsw Hor ; Fifth occurrence of the census .
Year 11 : Appearance of the King of Lower Egypt ; Second time of the festival of the Bark (of Sokar) .
Year 12 : Shemsw Hor ; sixth cattle census .
Year 13 : First occasion of the feast 'Hr sb3 pt' (Horus the star of the sky)
Year 14 : Shemsw Hor; Seventh occasion of the cattle census . Year 15 : Appearance of the King of Lower Egypt ; Second occurrence of the race of the Apis bull .
Year 16 : Shemsw Hor (Followers of Horus); Eighth cattle enumeration.
Year 17 : Appearance of the King of Low. Eg. ; Third celebration of the Festival of the Bark (Sokaris ?) ;
Year 18 : Followers of Horus ; ninth occasion of the census ;
Year 19 : Appearance of the King of Low. Eg. ; Sacrifice for the King's mother ; feast of the eternity (djet)
Year 20 : Followers of Horus ; [Tenth enumeration of cattle].

Info: http://xoomer.virgilio.it/francescoraf/hesyra/ninetjer.htm

We see Horus, Sokar, and the Apis Bull.
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anneke
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 31, 2004 1:00 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I looked up Sokar on Touregypt, because I had heard of him but didn't remember much about him.

Quote:
In ancient Egypt, Sokar is really one of the more complex Egyptian gods to understand. He is often equated with Osiris, or as the resurrected Osiris though his scope stretches well beyond that over time. Even his name is shrouded in scholarly controversy. One theory is that his name is derived from and based on the term sk r ("cleaning of the mouth") found in Coffin Text Spell 816 and a 12th dynasty papyrus. This term is used in the context of the Opening of the Mouth ceremony in which Sokar does play a part. Another theory is that the etymology of the god's name comes from one of the Pyramid Texts where Osiris said, as a cry of help to his wife and sister, "Sy k ri", or hurry to me.


It sounds to me as thought Sokar may have been a fore-runner of Osiris.
It's clear that he was worshipped in the time of the 2nd dynasty.
The text goes on to say
Quote:
However, Sokar was associated with the Memphite god Ptah as the synchronistic Ptah-Sokar even before Sokar's association with Osiris. This was perhaps an easy link because Ptah too was a god of craftsmanship. In fact, Sokar took Ptah's consort, Sekhmet as his own. In this form, Ptah-Sokar associates the wealth of the soil and its power of growth.


I did not see any mention of Sekhmet, so the association with Ptah may have occurred at a later time.

Quote:
Even though there has not been any archaeological evidence of a temple solely dedicated to Sokar, Memphis remained the primary cult center of god and it was there, at least by the early Old Kingdom, that the great Sokar (or Choiak) took place each year during the fourth month of the spring akhet season. At this time, the god was carried from his temple to assist the king in ceremonial activities including the hoeing of the earth or the digging of ditches or canals.


It sounds like this festival of Sokar may be the one mentioned in Ninetjer's year 11 and 17 (this last one was the 3rd, so another must have taken place before year 6)
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