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Please help. How is the Book Of The Dead actually used?
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Bean100
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PostPosted: Wed Nov 10, 2010 7:37 pm    Post subject: Please help. How is the Book Of The Dead actually used? Reply with quote

I've been reading many books and im trying to get my head around what the book of the dead was used for, how it was used and who by.

are they instructions to the deceased on how to get to the afterlife and what the deceased person must say

or

does the deceased not actually read the text, the living people do, so that the instructions on how to get though safetly are given to him automatically during his journey

or

are some of these texts supposed to be read out by the living as a ritual which provides the deceased with protection in his journey.

any guidance would be greatly appreciated
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PostPosted: Wed Nov 10, 2010 8:13 pm    Post subject: Re: Please help. How is the Book Of The Dead actually used? Reply with quote

Bean100 wrote:
I've been reading many books and im trying to get my head around what the book of the dead was used for, how it was used and who by.

are they instructions to the deceased on how to get to the afterlife and what the deceased person must say

or

does the deceased not actually read the text, the living people do, so that the instructions on how to get though safetly are given to him automatically during his journey

or

are some of these texts supposed to be read out by the living as a ritual which provides the deceased with protection in his journey.

any guidance would be greatly appreciated


Hi Bean100:

are they instructions to the deceased on how to get to the afterlife and what the deceased person must say

This is my understanding.

Smile
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PostPosted: Wed Nov 10, 2010 8:17 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Also you may find this interesting:

http://projects.vassar.edu/bookofthedead/

The papyrus of Ani,

Stuart
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PostPosted: Wed Nov 10, 2010 9:09 pm    Post subject: Re: Please help. How is the Book Of The Dead actually used? Reply with quote

Styler78 wrote:
Bean100 wrote:
I've been reading many books and im trying to get my head around what the book of the dead was used for, how it was used and who by.

are they instructions to the deceased on how to get to the afterlife and what the deceased person must say

or

does the deceased not actually read the text, the living people do, so that the instructions on how to get though safetly are given to him automatically during his journey

or

are some of these texts supposed to be read out by the living as a ritual which provides the deceased with protection in his journey.

any guidance would be greatly appreciated


Hi Bean100:

are they instructions to the deceased on how to get to the afterlife and what the deceased person must say

This is my understanding.

Smile


to the bold printed line by Styler78 I would like to add when questioned by the gods You will see when you read a translation of the book, that when admitted to the netherworld, the deceased (pharaoh) transforms into Osiris, lord of the netherworld.

I seem to recall that there also were a few formula's for those left behind, to help the deceased on his / her journey, or keep the memory of the deceased alive when spoken on certain holidays. I have a complete translation here, unfortunately for you into my native Dutch language. If you can lay hands on Ani's BotD with translation into English, it certain will be of great help to you.

Richard, aka
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PostPosted: Wed Nov 10, 2010 11:03 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Actually both. If you read the complete so called “book of the dead”, you will find spells that had to be spoken by the deceased, and spells that had to be uttered by the relatives or appointed priests who performed the ceremonial duties on behalf of the family in honor of the deceased. To give a simple example. The ritual of “the opening of the mouth”, had to be performed on the mummy by a priest. There were also several spells that had to be recited on certain days, like: Other spell to praise the blissful (deceased) on the Birthday of Osiris, and to make the soul live forever (spell 130), or: Book of the adoration of the blissful, to be read on the first day of the month (spell 133)

Note, I have a Dutch translation, so the spells in English translations, could differ from the one I have.
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 11, 2010 5:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Ranoferhotep wrote:
Actually both. If you read the complete so called “book of the dead”, you will find spells that had to be spoken by the deceased, and spells that had to be uttered by the relatives or appointed priests who performed the ceremonial duties on behalf of the family in honor of the deceased. To give a simple example. The ritual of “the opening of the mouth”, had to be performed on the mummy by a priest. There were also several spells that had to be recited on certain days, like: Other spell to praise the blissful (deceased) on the Birthday of Osiris, and to make the soul live forever (spell 130), or: Book of the adoration of the blissful, to be read on the first day of the month (spell 133)

Note, I have a Dutch translation, so the spells in English translations, could differ from the one I have.


So do I, I am curious what Spell 50 is in English is (for Bean100, it seems that the transformation already has taken place at that point, Ranoferhotep, what do you think?)
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 11, 2010 7:51 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Book Of the Dead in English,

http://interoz.com/egypt/bkofdead.htm

Translation by EA Wallis Budge,

Regards,

Stuart
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 11, 2010 9:36 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Styler78 wrote:
Book Of the Dead in English,

http://interoz.com/egypt/bkofdead.htm

Translation by EA Wallis Budge,

Regards,

Stuart


BotD spell 50:

The Chapter Of Not Going In To The Block Of The God

The Osiris Ani saith:- My head was fastened on my body in heaven, O Guardian of the Earth, by Ra. [This] was granted [to me] on the day of my being stablished, when I rose up out of a state of weakness upon [my] two feet. On the day of cutting off the hair Set and the Company of the Gods fastened my head to my neck, and it became as firm as it was originally. Let nothing happen to shake it off again! Make ye me safe from the murderer of my father. I have tied together the Two Earths. Nut hath fastened together the vertebrae of my neck, and [I] behold them as they were originally, and they are seen in the order wherein they were when as yet Maat was not seen, and when the gods were not born in visible forms. I am Penti. I am the heir of the great gods, I the Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth.

Is "Duat" translated from Egyptian into English as "Tuat"? Anyone who wants the above in Dutch? Laughing

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PostPosted: Thu Nov 11, 2010 9:48 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Toth wrote:
Styler78 wrote:
Book Of the Dead in English,

http://interoz.com/egypt/bkofdead.htm

Translation by EA Wallis Budge,

Regards,

Stuart


BotD spell 50:

The Chapter Of Not Going In To The Block Of The God

The Osiris Ani saith:- My head was fastened on my body in heaven, O Guardian of the Earth, by Ra. [This] was granted [to me] on the day of my being stablished, when I rose up out of a state of weakness upon [my] two feet. On the day of cutting off the hair Set and the Company of the Gods fastened my head to my neck, and it became as firm as it was originally. Let nothing happen to shake it off again! Make ye me safe from the murderer of my father. I have tied together the Two Earths. Nut hath fastened together the vertebrae of my neck, and [I] behold them as they were originally, and they are seen in the order wherein they were when as yet Maat was not seen, and when the gods were not born in visible forms. I am Penti. I am the heir of the great gods, I the Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth.

Is "Duat" translated from Egyptian into English as "Tuat"? Anyone who wants the above in Dutch? Laughing

Richard, aka


No, not that i have come across. Duat is fine. Some may use Tuat, but Duat seems the "popular choice",

Stuart Smile
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 11, 2010 9:51 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Styler78 wrote:
Book Of the Dead in English,

http://interoz.com/egypt/bkofdead.htm

Translation by EA Wallis Budge,

Regards,

Stuart


Thanks for the link Stuart, unfortunately the spells aren’t numbered which makes it difficult to compare with the Dutch translation.
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 11, 2010 10:00 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

@ Toth

Quote:
So do I, I am curious what Spell 50 is in English is (for Bean100, it seems that the transformation already has taken place at that point, Ranoferhotep, what do you think?)


I have no clue what you are referring to?
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 11, 2010 10:02 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Styler78 wrote:
Toth wrote:
Styler78 wrote:
Book Of the Dead in English,

http://interoz.com/egypt/bkofdead.htm

Translation by EA Wallis Budge,

Regards,

Stuart


BotD spell 50:

The Chapter Of Not Going In To The Block Of The God

The Osiris Ani saith:- My head was fastened on my body in heaven, O Guardian of the Earth, by Ra. [This] was granted [to me] on the day of my being stablished, when I rose up out of a state of weakness upon [my] two feet. On the day of cutting off the hair Set and the Company of the Gods fastened my head to my neck, and it became as firm as it was originally. Let nothing happen to shake it off again! Make ye me safe from the murderer of my father. I have tied together the Two Earths. Nut hath fastened together the vertebrae of my neck, and [I] behold them as they were originally, and they are seen in the order wherein they were when as yet Maat was not seen, and when the gods were not born in visible forms. I am Penti. I am the heir of the great gods, I the Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth.

Is "Duat" translated from Egyptian into English as "Tuat"? Anyone who wants the above in Dutch? Laughing

Richard, aka


No, not that i have come across. Duat is fine. Some may use Tuat, but Duat seems the "popular choice",

Stuart Smile


At least here it is (the popular choice) and I found "my" spell quite quickly the bold title above my post of the spell (from Ani's BotD) is the title in the index of the posted book. Erm, Ranoferhotep: can you sing the Hymn to Ra? In tune and rhythm? One of the spells insists that it is sung, that is why I ask Wink

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PostPosted: Thu Nov 11, 2010 10:46 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
Ranoferhotep: can you sing the Hymn to Ra? In tune and rhythm? One of the spells insists that it is sung, that is why I ask


Since I have neither the text in hieroglyphic or hieratic, and if I would have them, I can’t read them, and since I have no transcription, and the fact that even with a transcription, we don’t know for sure how the words were pronounced, the answer is no. We also don’t know which rhythm the A.E. used in their songs and incantations, because they never wrote them down. That is to say, we have until yet no evidence of that last.
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 11, 2010 11:26 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Ranoferhotep wrote:
Quote:
Ranoferhotep: can you sing the Hymn to Ra? In tune and rhythm? One of the spells insists that it is sung, that is why I ask


Since I have neither the text in hieroglyphic or hieratic, and if I would have them, I can’t read them, and since I have no transcription, and the fact that even with a transcription, we don’t know for sure how the words were pronounced, the answer is no. We also don’t know which rhythm the A.E. used in their songs and incantations, because they never wrote them down. That is to say, we have until yet no evidence of that last.


Thank you for this very honest answer, Ranoferhotep; please do understand that I had no intention to embarrass you, I read about that hymn and I just wanted to know, mind you, the only hymn I knew to be in existence was the one to the Aten, and I assume they are not the same, although in the BotD of Ani this hymn seems to be present:

NEKHT, THE CAPTAIN OF SOLDIERS, THE ROYAL SCRIBE, SINGETH A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA, and saith:-

Homage to thee, O thou glorious Being, thou who art dowered [with all sovereignty]. O Tem-Heru-Khuti (Tem-Harmakhis), when thou risest in the horizon of heaven a cry of joy goeth forth to thee from all people. O thou beautiful Being, thou dost renew thyself in thy season in the form of the Disk, within thy mother Hathor. Therefore in every place every heart swelleth with joy at thy rising for ever. The regions of the South and the North come to thee with homage, and send forth acclamations at thy rising on the horizon of heaven, and thou illuminest the Two Lands with rays of turquoise-[coloured] light. O Ra, who art Heru-Khuti, the divine man-child, the heir of eternity, self-begotten and self-born, king of the earth, prince of the Tuat (the Other World), governor of Aukert, thou didst come from the Water-god, thou didst spring from the Sky-god Nu, who doth cherish thee and order thy members. O thou god of life, thou lord of love, all men live when thou shinest; thou art crowned king of the gods. The goddess Nut embraceth thee, and the goddess Mut enfoldeth thee at all seasons. Those who are in thy following sing unto thee with joy, and they bow down their foreheads to the earth when they meet thee, the lord of heaven, the lord of the earth, the King of Truth, the lord of eternity, the prince of everlastingness, thou sovereign of all the gods, thou god of life, thou creator of eternity, thou maker of heaven wherin thou art firmly stablished.

The Company of the Gods rejoice at thy rising, the earth is glad when it beholdeth thy rays; the people who have been long dead come forth with cries of joy to behold thy beauties every day. Thou goest forth each day over heaven and earth, and thou art made strong each day be thy mother Nut. Thou passest over the heights of heaven, thy heart swelleth with joy; and the Lake of Testes (the Great Oasis) is content thereat. The Serpent-fiend hath fallen, his arms are hewn off, the Knife hath severed his joints. Ra liveth by Maat (Law), the beautiful! The Sektet Boat advanceth and cometh into port. The South and the North, and the West and East, turn to praise thee. O thou First, Great God (PAUTA), who didst come into being of thine own accord, Isis and Nephthys salute thee, they sing unto thee songs of joy at thy rising in the boat, they stretch out their hands unto thee. The Souls of the East follow thee, and the Souls of the West praise thee. Thou art the Ruler of all the gods. Thou in thy shrine hast joy, for the Serpent-fiend Nak hath been judged by the fire, and thy heart shall rejoice for ever. Thy mother Nut is esteemed by thy father Nu.


There is also an Osiris hymn present there at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/ra-ani.html

Richard, aka
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PostPosted: Fri Nov 12, 2010 9:32 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Styler78 wrote:
Also you may find this interesting:

http://projects.vassar.edu/bookofthedead/

The papyrus of Ani,

Stuart


Hey, is this the complete book of the dead? From start to finish?
It's quite impressive.
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