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homework help

 
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Shadowless
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Joined: 27 Mar 2013
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PostPosted: Wed Mar 27, 2013 4:16 am    Post subject: homework help Reply with quote

Hi guys

I am doing a research on Book of the Dead for English class. I am taking Egyptology right now but i have more questions and answers. The class is not within the depth but more just a survey, the kind of a class I hate the most!

I am stuck! Please help if you can.

1. Was the Devour/Ammut goddess added to Egyptian god/goddesses list right away or was she added later? I cannot find first reference to her. The first time I find her is in Weighting the Heart scroll I know i am missing something in the middle.

2. Did Egyptian only fear Ammut or are there other gods and goddesses they feared?

3. Do we know in which order were the spells added to Book of the Dead? Obviously they were not written at the same time.

4. I am looking at my notes Egyptian trade and i am missing a couple of things. Could someone help me to fill in the blanks?

Middle Kingdom

Egypt traded with
Lebanon for wood
Mesopotamia/Sumerians (inconsistent trade)
Turkey/Hittites - Tin to egypt to make copper
Nubia - Gold to Egypt, elephant tusks, Rhino and giraffe?
Palestine/Cannatives -
Wheat was transported from Egypt on reed boats along the Nile then they were loaded on ships that were not made in Egypt
What other places am I missing?

that's all for now
I am sure I will think of more

thanks
Shadow
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neseret
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Joined: 10 Jul 2008
Posts: 1029
Location: United Kingdom

PostPosted: Wed Mar 27, 2013 7:38 pm    Post subject: Re: homework help Reply with quote

Shadowless wrote:
I am doing a research on Book of the Dead for English class. I am taking Egyptology right now but i have more questions and answers. The class is not within the depth but more just a survey, the kind of a class I hate the most!

I am stuck! Please help if you can.

1. Was the Devour/Ammut goddess added to Egyptian god/goddesses list right away or was she added later? I cannot find first reference to her. The first time I find her is in Weighting the Heart scroll I know i am missing something in the middle.


Ammut is apparently a creation of the post-Amarna period. It is in the post-Amarna period one sees the first appearance of Ammut, the demonic “Swallower of the Dead,” who utterly destroyed those unworthy to enter the next life (Hornung 1994: 135; Hornung 1999: 102). It was this entity’s appearance which exemplified the new aspect to the afterlife landscape: a place of total annihilation – hell, in other words. While a “place of destruction” had been mentioned in the Book of the Amduat, non-being alone was envisioned as its ultimate sentence. It was, however, with the post-Amarna Book of Gates, and its successor netherworld text, the Book of Caverns (which appears first during the reign of Seti I at the Osireion (Hornung 1999: 83)), where active emphasis upon “evil-doers,” who are subjected to horrendous punishments in the nether regions of the afterlife, is accentuated.

Shadowless wrote:
2. Did Egyptian only fear Ammut or are there other gods and goddesses they feared?


I can assure you that Ammut was not the only deity they feared. The fear of Ammut was based on a specific fear - destruction of the soul after death - which would mean non-being for all eternity. However, you would need to read quite a number of works on ancient Egyptian religion to make a list of all the "feared" deities.

Shadowless wrote:
3. Do we know in which order were the spells added to Book of the Dead? Obviously they were not written at the same time.


No, I know only that we (as Egyptologists) can trace aspects of the spells to earlier underworld books, such as the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts, and we know of variations of the spells as to whether they are earlier or later than one spell. In which order they were added we are not as sure.

As for your trade question, I will leave that for you to research on your own, as surely you should have access to information witin your class.

Here are some works you should check to answer your questions:

Allen, T. G. and E. B. Hauser 1974. The Book of the Dead or Going Forth by Day: Ideas of the Ancient Egyptians Concerning the Hereafter as Expressed in Their Own Terms. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Darnell, J. C. 1995. The Enigmatic Netherworld Books of the Solar-Osirian Unity: Cryptographic Compositions in the Tombs of Tutankhamun, Ramesses VI, and Ramesses IX. (4 Vols.). Near Eastern Studies and Civilizations. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Faulkner, R. O. 1977. The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts. (3 Vols.) Warminster: Aris and Philips.

Faulkner, R. O. 1998. The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press.

Faulkner, R. O. and C. Andrews. 1985. The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead. Austin:University of Texas Press/British Museum.

Hornung, E. 1994. Black Holes View from Within: Hell in Ancient Egyptian Thought. Diogenes 165/42(1): 133-156.

Hornung, E. 1999. The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife. Ithaca, Cornell University Press.

Lesko, L. H. 1969. The Composition of the Book of Two Ways. Near Eastern Languages and Civilization. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Stillwell, G. A. 2000. Conduct and Behavior as Determinants for the Afterlife: A Comparison of the Judgments of the Dead in Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece. College of Arts and Sciences: Florida State University.

Tobin, V. A. 1986. Mythic Symbolism in the Amarna System. The Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 16(1): 5-18.

HTH.
_________________
Katherine Griffis-Greenberg

Doctoral Candidate
Oriental Institute
Oriental Studies
Doctoral Programme [Egyptology]
Oxford University
Oxford, United Kingdom

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