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Fields of Aaru...

 
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Lost Pharaoh
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PostPosted: Mon Jan 11, 2016 11:48 am    Post subject: Fields of Aaru... Reply with quote

Hi, everybody! I was absent for a long time, but now I came back to study of Ancient Egypt again, so I have some questions.

Where I can find a most detailed description of afterlife, Duat, Aaru and travel of the soul of the dead in the underworld from the moment of death to the moment when it arive in the Aaru?

Thank you very much Smile

P. S. I am glad that I'm back.
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PostPosted: Mon Jan 11, 2016 12:57 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The Book of Coming Forth by Day, Papyrus of Ani.
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PostPosted: Mon Jan 11, 2016 12:57 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The Book of Coming Forth by Day, Papyrus of Ani.
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Lost Pharaoh
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PostPosted: Mon Jan 11, 2016 1:05 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I saw that book, but I would like to read some interpretation of that part of mythology, like some kind of story, not translated ancient Egyptian text.

Something like "The Ancient Egyptians belived that after death, the soul of deceased travel to Duat..." Smile
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Lutz
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PostPosted: Mon Jan 11, 2016 10:38 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The works by Eric Hornung should be exactly what you are looking for. He is, next to Stephen Quirke, in my view the best in the field. Although both authors write at university level and their books as textbooks are standard around the world, they remain also for the interested layman read- and understand-able.

In the last years some of the books by Hornung were translated into English...

The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife. - [Transl. by David Lorton]. - Ithaca (NY) : Cornell University Press, 1999. - ISBN : 0801435153; 0801485150. - XXIV, 188 p., 95 figs [ills], map, plan.

The Egyptian Amduat - The Book of the Hidden Chamber. - [Ed. Hornung / Abt ; Transl. David Warburton]. - Zurich : Living Human Heritage, 2007. - ISBN : 9783952260845; 3952260843. - 446 p., figs [ills (mostly colour)].

Knowledge for the Afterlife : The Egyptian Amduat - A Quest for Immortality. - Zurich : Living Human Heritage, 2003. - ISBN : 3952260800. - 154 p., ills [chiefly colour].

The Egyptian Book of Gates. - Zurich : Living Human Heritage, 2014. - ISBN : 9783952388051. - 475 p., ills.



And some articles, maybe also of interest...

Black holes viewed from within - Hell in ancient Egyptian thought. - In: Diogenes 165. - 1994. - pp. 133 - 156.

Idea Into Image - Essays on Ancient Egyptian Thought. - [Transl. by Elizabeth Bredeck]. - New York : Timken, 1992. - ISBN : 0943221110. - 210 p., ills :
Quote:
OEB: "This book contains a number of papers originally addressed to non-Egyptological audiences. These are republished here as separate chapters, all of them reworked and presented in a consistent format.

The opening paper is called "The key: word and image". The author presents a survey of the hieroglyphs and writing from the very beginnings to the Neo-Platonic symbolic understanding and the growing interest from the Renaissance onwards, resulting in the decipherment by Jean-François Champollion. Attention is drawn, among others, to certain hieroglyphs as symbols and amulets, the lack of a strict distinction between image and writing, enigmatic scripts, and the representation of often very complex divine beings. At the end the Kadesh battle report of Ramses II is taken as an example to illustrate how word and representation work together for the sake of propaganda.

Chapter 2 is concerned with creation. The author deals with the idea of the still undifferentiated primordial mass, the emergence of a base from the primeval flood, the demiurge and the creation act differentiating the world, the ideal First Time (sp tpi) and the constant regeneration, the cosmogonies, the sun cycle and the idea in the Ramesside Period of one god behind the variety.

Magic is the subject of Chapter 3. In order to explore this essential trait of the Egyptian culture, the author studies the concept of magic (heka), also personified as a god, and shows its use in various situations and religious texts. The active energy of the cosmos directed against evil powers, what magic essentially is, is latent and can be summoned. Amulets enhance its effect. Also images or simply the name of Amun or a king can be magically productive. Further remarks are devoted to magic in the physician's practice, the growing share of magic in the medical texts, the importance of the mythical precedent, the growing tendency to use magic in order to achieve all objectives, and sorcery for its own sake.

Questions of time, age and eternity turn up in Chapter 4. After noting that Egypt has left the world the calendar, the author describes some very long careers and refers to the ideal of 110 years of life (ahau) and extra time. The representation of time as a rope or snake in the Books of the Netherworld leads to a discussion of neheh and djet as expressions for the concepts eternity and endless space. They operate together and the distinctions cannot be sharply defined; they incorporate the temporal aspect of the world.

A comparable word pair plays a prominent role in Chapter 5, on border and symmetry. Since the created world has and needs borders, there exist two kinds: tash as expandable and passable borders in the world of gods and man and as organisational device, while djer is the absolute border belonging to the cosmos. The geographical aspects of territory and border lead the author to the principle of symmetrical structure in geographical matters or in art and architecture. Examples of deliberate, but minor deviation are given, and explained as the result of an attitude balancing between rule and freedom. The author lays emphasis on another principle, i.e. to surpass all that precedes, to expand what exists. The royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings are given as an example. The absolute border djer as end restrains this tendency, but along with the expansion toward an empire in the 18th Dynasty an inflation in the description of its borders can be noticed. The borders most far away are unknown, also to the gods and the dead, as some religious texts testify.

In Chapter 6 the author describes the Egyptian views of the hereafter. He first points out that the dead sojourn in a depth which is at the same time the primeval water, the subterranean earth and heaven and in which the sun sails at night in his boat. The Books of the Netherworld describe this dark side of life with its terror, though, on the other hand, it is a place of regeneration for the sun from old to young again and is lit by the sun during its course. After explaining the temporal and geographical organisation of the Books of the Netherworld, the author notices that the dead partake in this regeneration. Attention is paid to the theological reconciliation of Re as night sun and Osiris as ruler of the underworld.

Chapter 7 is concerned with the temple as cosmos. The author deals with a variety of aspects of the temple: the foundation ceremony as repetition of the creation and the architectural plan as representation of the cosmos, with many details on its symbolism; the role of the decoration with king and gods as protagonists; the cult and the temple as integral parts of the state; the participation of private persons in the cult through statues; the Egyptian idea of the temple as a physical organism of divine nature; the veneration of the main god and others.

One of the most important temple cult scenes, the offering of Ma'at by Pharaoh, is in Chapter 8 taken by the author to dwell on the concept of Ma'at and its personification as a goddess. The platform hieroglyph is taken to be an ideogram: Ma'at as basis of the created world. It is the standard, which must be defended by doing and speaking Ma'at, and is rather ethics than rigid law. Despite the absence of a definition by the Egyptians themselves, the wisdom literature helped them to realize Ma'at. Although intimately connected with social justice, the concept has also the wider meaning of harmony in general. Attention is paid to the dialectic tension between ideal and reality.

A favourite subject of the author recurs in Chapter 9: history as feast. The author begins with sketching the growth of historical conscience in the formative period of Egypt. Some cases of the specific roles of characters, like king, god and enemy, in scenes are presented. The role of ritual in the Egyptian conception of history is emphasized: in Egypt history is a cultic drama. The role of the king in maintaining the world order and his relation to particularly the sun god are elaborated by the author.

In the next chapter 10 the author is concerned with the divine animals. Stressing caution with respect to the relation animal and the divine, the author first reviews a number of phenomena connected with the animal in general: positive and negative roles, animals on Archaic standards, the cult of animals. He then returns to the divine animals. Originally represented in completely animal form in the Predynastic Period, the divine animal assumes more and more the anthropomorphic shape, although never exclusively. Special attention is paid to the idea behind the sphinx, the nocturnal form of the sun god with the ram head, and the snake. The symbolism of lion, bull and crocodile is elucidated. At the end the author expresses his idea that the Egyptian religion makes use of animals in order to inform about the essence of the divine and in order to create a closeness between the worlds of the gods and of mankind.

The mummy scene with Anubis is taken as point of departure in Chapter 11. After a note on the connection of the body with the earth-bound fish and of the ba-soul with the air-borne bird, the author draws attention to the importance of endurance of the body. Aspects of mummification and the funeral (with a note on the tekenu), and care for the body are treated. Then the author studies the other aspects of a person. The concept ka is circumscribed, the important role of the heart is illustrated, next to remarks on the name (i.a. a role in magic), the shadow and particularly the ba with its strong spiritual dimension, its freedom of movement and its ability to adopt other forms.

In the last Chapter 12 the author does not only devote his attention to the Egyptian literature, but also to Western poets for whom Egypt has been a source of inspiration. The author sketches the development very briefly. The impact of chaos and disorder on pessimistic literature and the emergence of new genres (complaint for the dead, harper song and love song) after the Amarna Period are noticed. Some famous Western authors and poets, i.a. Rilke, pass briefly in review.

A bibliography to the separate chapters and an index added.

Chapters 3, 10 and 12 are omitted from the English edition.

Greetings, Lutz.
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Lost Pharaoh
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PostPosted: Tue Jan 12, 2016 8:48 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thank you Lutz, very much. You give great explanations and references as always. I will look for this books surely. Smile
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