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Oldest Papyri From Oldest Port Go On Display

 
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Lutz
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PostPosted: Wed Jul 20, 2016 5:53 pm    Post subject: Oldest Papyri From Oldest Port Go On Display Reply with quote

"Oldest papyri from oldest port go on display" (The History Blog - July 20, 2016)

Quote:
"Dating to around 2600 B.C., the harbor at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea in Egypt is the oldest port complex ever discovered in the world. It was built during the reign of the Pharaoh Snefru (ca. 2620–2580 B.C.), the founder of the 4th Dynasty, and was primarily used for boat travel to the Egypt’s main copper and turquoise mines on the Sinai Peninsula. An L-shaped pier extended east from the shore into the water for 160 meters (525 feet) before turning southeast for 120 meters (394 feet). Its remains are still clearly visible at low tide. The pier created a breakwater and large sheltered area where ships could be moored. This was confirmed when a group of at least 22 limestone ship anchors were found south of the east branch of the pier. ...

... In 2013, archaeologists discovered hundreds of papyrus fragments, some of them more than two feet long. The papyri had been deposited in front of galleries G1 and G2 where large blocking stones were placed to close off the entrance to the galleries. Written in hieratic (simplified hieroglyphics used by priests and scribes), several of the papyri were dated to the end of the reign of the Pharaoh Khufu (ca. 2580–2550 B.C.). One of the documents was very specific, noting it was written the year after the 13th cattle count of Khufu’s reign. The cattle count was done every other year, so the year after the 13th cattle count was the 27th year, which according to our current best information was the last year of his reign. The precise dating identifies this papyrus as the oldest ever discovered in Egypt.

There are two types of documents in the papyrus group: accounts organized in tables anyone who has ever worked in Excel will immediately recognize, and the logbook of a Memphis official named Merer. The accounting tables record deliveries of food from areas elsewhere in Egypt including the Nile Delta. Revenue is recorded in red; outlay in black. Merer’s archive recorded the daily activities of his team of around 200 men, and as archaeological luck would have it, most of the surviving papyri don’t cover the minutiae of their operations at Wadi al-Jarf, but rather their work relating to the construction of the Great Pyramid at Giza. There are descriptions of quarrying the limestone, the transportation over the Nile and canals of massive blocks of stone from the quarries of Tura to the “Horizon of Khufu,” meaning the Giza construction site. These limestone blocks were probably used for the outer layer of the Great Pyramid, now lost, but which would have glowed white in the Egyptian sun.

Merer’s logbook was found in the same archaeological context as the 13th cattle count document. It confirms that in Khufu’s last regnal year, the pyramid was in the final stage of construction. It also identifies the role of a major player, the pharaoh’s half-brother Ankh-haf who as “chief for all the works of the king” was in charge of this last phase of the Great Pyramid’s construction.

A selection of the papyri, including the 13th cattle count document, the largest pieces of Merer’s journal and the accounting spreadsheets have gone on display for the first time at Cairo’s Egyptian Museum. ..."

Greetings, Lutz.
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Lutz
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 22, 2016 3:57 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

"The Diary of a Pyramid Builder" (Daily Mail - Mark Prigg, 15.07.2016)

Quote:
Oldest papyrus in existence details where Egyptian workers shifted stones and even how many sheep they ate - and could reveal the secrets of the Great Pyramid of Giza

    - Items from 4th Dynasty of King Khufu, also known as Cheops, for whom Great Pyramid of Giza was built as a tomb

    - Reveal the daily lives of port workers who transported huge limestone blocks to Cairo

    - Show the distribution of food portions for workers, including one showing the number of sheep brought in

"Ancient Logbook Documenting Great Pyramid's Construction Unveiled" (Live Science - Owen Jarus, July 18, 2016)

Greetings, Lutz.
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 31, 2017 10:24 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Pierre Tallet : Les Papyrus de la Mer Rouge I - Le «Journal de Merer» (P. Jarf A et B) - [Annexe I : English and Arabic translation of the texts and Summary of the information by Colin Clement]. - Cairo : IFAO, 2017. - pp. 149 - 176.
Quote:
The Wadi el-Jarf site, excavated since 2011, is an harbour on the Red Sea shore that was used at the beginning of the IVth dynasty to reach the copper and turquoise mines of the south-western part of Sinai Peninsula. During the 2013 archaeological campaign, hundreds of fragments of papyrus from the end of Khufu’s reign were collected at the entrance of one of the storage galleries that are one of the most remarkable features of the site. This is at the moment the oldest papyrus archive ever found in Egypt. It is related to a team of sailors and mainly includes two categories of documents: accounts of commodities delivered to the workers, and logbooks registering their daily activities over several months. Those last documents record missions led under the direction of the inspector Merer that are related to the transport of limestone blocks from the quarries of Tura to the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza, then under construction on the opposite bank of the Nile. This book is the publication of the two best preserved logs of this archive.

Greetings, Lutz.
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PostPosted: Thu Apr 13, 2017 11:34 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

For download (PDF - 1,6 MB) : " Annexe I : English and Arabic translation of the texts and Summary of the information by Colin Clement ".

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PostPosted: Sat Jun 03, 2017 9:16 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

The Great Pyramid and a discovery near the Red Sea - Excavations in Khufu's Habour, Wadi el-Jarf :

" The Port, the Papyrus, and the Great Pyramid " (Video, 1:18:04).

Pierre Tallet (University Sorbonne, Paris) at the ARCE-Meeting in Kansas-City, Nelson Atkins Mueum, 23. April 2017.

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PostPosted: Sun Sep 24, 2017 10:29 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Very interesting discovery, I sadly just now find out about it.
Is there somewhere a hieroglyphic transcription of this papyri, as I can see this is only translation?
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Lutz
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Joined: 02 Sep 2007
Posts: 3631
Location: Berlin, Germany

PostPosted: Sun Sep 24, 2017 11:17 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Pierre Tallet : Les Papyrus de la Mer Rouge I - Le "journal de Merer" (Papyrus Jarf A et B). - [Mémoires publiés par les membres de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale 136]. - Le Caire : Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 2017. - ISBN : 9782724707069. - IX, 164 p., 21 figs [maps, plans, ills (mostly colour)], hieroglyphic texts, 9 + [1] tables, 29 + [5] plates [maps (mostly colour), plans, ills (mostly colour), hieroglyphic texts], [4] plates [colour ills, hieroglyphic texts (folding)].

Quote:
The Wadi el-Jarf site, excavated since 2011, is a harbour on the Red Sea shore that was used at the beginning of the 4th Dynasty to reach the copper and turquoise mines of the south-western part of the Sinai Peninsula. During the 2013 archaeological campaign, hundreds of fragments of papyrus from the end of Khufu's reign were collected at the entrance of one of the storage galleries that are one of the most remarkable features of this site. This is at the moment the oldest papyrus archive ever found in Egypt. It is related to a team of sailors and mainly includes two categories of documents: accounts of commodities delivered to the workers and logbooks registering their daily activities over several months. Those last documents record missions led under the direction of the inspector Merer that are related to the transport of limestone blocks from the quarries of Tura to the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza, then under construction on the opposite bank of the Nile. This book is the publication of the two best preserved logs of this archive.

Greetings, Lutz.
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 30, 2017 2:03 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

With best regards from Michael Tilgner ...


(Plates V & VI)


(Plates XI, XV & XVII)

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PostPosted: Sun Oct 01, 2017 8:13 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thank you Lutz, very much! This is nice transcription Smile
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