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dzama923
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 16, 2016 2:18 am    Post subject: Looking for Information Reply with quote

I am looking for information about the embalming process. The use of chemicals/ ointments used, and what they did to prepare the body of the deceased for their journey into the afterlife.
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Lutz
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 16, 2016 2:44 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Salima Ikram / Aidan Dodson : The Mummy in Ancient Egypt - Equipping the Dead for Eternity. - London : Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1998. - ISBN : 0500050880. - 352 p., 485 figs., 37 colour plates, 4 maps :

Quote:
OEB 44178 (AEB 1999.0831) :

"This book intends to cover in some detail not only the subject of mummification, but also the total 'burial complex', including the corpse's external ornamentation and the evolution of the essential funerary equipment such as the coffin, the sarcophagus and the canopic jars. The book starts with an extensive chronology from the Predynastic period to the modern Republic, with particular attention to the Horus names, the throne names and the personal names of the kings and their reign lengths.

Part 1 provides the general introduction to death and burial in Ancient Egypt. This part gives in chapters 1-2 a broad survey of the ancient Egyptian burial and the Egyptian funerary beliefs. Chapter 1 deals with: the Egyptian conception of the afterlife, the gods and goddesses of death, and the tomb and its contents throughout the several periods, from the Archaic period to the Roman period. Chapter 2 is concerned with the resurrection of the mummy, dealing with: the ancient tomb-robbers, the often sad fate of the mummies and their sepulchres, and the more respectful and scholarly approaches by the expeditions to Egypt. The chapter ends with a section on the scientific research on mummies.

Part 2 focuses on the various aspects of the burial. Working from the core of the burial, the mummy, outwards, the evolution of the methods for treating the body, wrapping it, and sheltering it are dealt with in turn. Chapter 3 is devoted to the mummies and the art of mummification as known from the ancient sources and physical evidence. Again, the evolution is described, from the simply prepared mummies in the Archaic period and the Old Kingdom to the mummies of Graeco-Roman Period in their often splendid wrappings. The subject of animal mummies is treated as well. Chapter 4 describes the history of the funerary articles on the body, such as amulets, jewellery and other adornments. Chapter 5 is concerned with the development of the mummy wrappings, and chapter 6 with masks and external ornamentation. Chapter 7, on coffins (by which term is meant the container(s) nearest to the body), begins with a summary of coffin development and continues with the description of the historical development. The same procedure is followed in chapter 8, on sarcophagi (here defined as a container of coffins, specifically an outer case of wood or stone, essentially rectangular, and clearly distinguishable from the rectangular of anthropoid coffins that lay within. Part 3 concludes with chapter 9 on the development of the canopic equipment.

Part 3 is a substantial reference section, consisting of: a timeline on burial; a glossary; a list of 113 cemeteries in Egypt (with maps); a gazetteer of the royal cemeteries; details of the royal burial caches; the whereabouts of the mummies, coffins and sarcophagi of the kings of pharaonic Egypt; a descriptive catalogue of all the known royal mummies; mummies in the media; a bibliography; and an index. (L.Z.)"

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dzama923
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 16, 2016 3:24 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Do you know if this book covers the chemical ointments they would use? Would they use a lot of oils and ointments? That I am not very sure of, just going off some vague information that was given to me. The chemicals and liquid potions they used is what I am trying to find information on as well. Thanks for this.
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 16, 2016 7:08 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

dzama923 wrote:
Do you know if this book covers the chemical ointments they would use? ... The chemicals and liquid potions they used is what I am trying to find information on as well. Thanks for this.

So far as they are known ... Further literature is indicated.
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 16, 2016 7:21 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Ikram / Dodson : The Mummy in Ancient Egypt (1998) : Content & Index.
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 16, 2016 7:54 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

There doesn't seem to be mention of the ingredients or use of ointments and liquids in the embalming process, from what I gather in the contents of the book above and the table of contents of the other pdf. I will read up on these though. Thanks.
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 16, 2016 8:04 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Have a look at the Index ... After that I would say "Part II - Chapter 3" is what you looking for.
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 17, 2016 12:16 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

A very interesting article about the re-examination of the mummies of Kha and Merit, today in the Museum Turin, still intact ...

Bianucci / Habicht / Buckley / Fletcher / Seiler / Öhrström, et al. : Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit. - In: PLoS ONE 10 (7). - 2015. - 21 p.

Quote:
Abstract

"The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers’ village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death.

Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding.

Elucidated “recipes”, whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification."

Greetings, Lutz.
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 17, 2016 1:02 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I'm almost done with the article "Shedding New Light on 18th.." It says in the beginning that they actually do not know the composition of the chemicals used on the mummies they were embalming.
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dzama923
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 17, 2016 1:22 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Just read it through. There's a good amount of information of what the resins and ointments are in the embalming process, but there are still some they do not mention, like the one used on the brain in these particular mummies.
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PostPosted: Mon Dec 19, 2016 3:32 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

And in the "References" as point "27" you find ...

Saleem SN, Hawass Z. Variability in Brain Treatment During Mummification of Royal Egyptians Dated to the 18th–20th Dynasties: MDCT Findings Correlated With the Archaeologic Literature. Am J Roentgenol.
2013; 200: 336–344

... with link to this article.
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PostPosted: Sun Jan 01, 2017 11:42 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Gomaa Abdel-Maksouda / Abdel-Rahman El-Aminb : A REVIEW ON THE MATERIALS USED DURING THE MUMMIFICATION PROCESSES IN ANCIENT EGYPT. - In: Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 11-2. - 2011. - pp. 129 - 150. - [PDF - 1,4 MB].

Quote:
Mummification is considered one of the most important in the history of ancient Egyptian civilization. The artificial mummification process started in the Fourth Dynasty during the Old Kingdom reached its peak in the New Kingdom. This review focuses on the usage of mummification materials such as Natron salt, Coniferous resin, Mastic, Myrrh, Beeswax, Bitumen, Cassia, Onions, Lichen, Henna and Gum Arabic in ancient Egypt to determine their effectiveness in the preservation of the body. For each material, the chemical formula, the history, and the role in the preservation of the body are presented. It is shown that natron salt was the most important material to desiccate a corpse, and that the vegetable materials mentioned above have anti-bacterial properties that protected the body from microbial attack.

Greetings, Lutz.
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 08, 2017 2:05 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I finally got my lent copy of ...

Salima Ikram / Aidan Dodson : The Mummy in Ancient Egypt - Equipping the Dead for Eternity. - London : Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1998

... back. On page 106 one finds this compact summary :



Greetings, Lutz.
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