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Books on Amarna period

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Joined: 18 Jan 2012
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 09, 2017 8:43 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Aidan Dodson
Amarna Sunrise & Amarna Sunset is a good place to start.
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PostPosted: Sun Dec 10, 2017 12:28 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

David B. O'Connor / Eric H. Cline [Eds] : Amenhotep III - Pperspectives On His Reign. - Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press, 1998. - ISBN : 0472107429. - XVI, 393 p.

Hans Goedicke : Problems Concerning Amenophis III. - Baltimore : Halgo, 1992. - ISBN : 0961380578. - 108 p., 10 plates :
OEB : The author discusses four problems concerning the reign and personality of Amenhotep III. The first one (p. 3-12) concerns the Nebty and Golden Horus names in his titulary. For both there exist a number of individual formulations in addition to the principal form attested throughout the king's long reign, and they can thus be considered his political programme. The Nebty name focuses on the "upholding of the laws which appease the Two Lands" (smn hpw sgrH tAwy), a law-and-order theme indicating that the situation in the country at the time of his ascension was not at all calm and that the enforcement of law was insufficient. The reference to the dualistic division of Egypt could be taken as an indication that tensions existed between the North and the South. The Golden Horus name "mighty of sword, which smites the Asiatics" (aA xpS Hww sTtyw) refers to the international situation. It advocates the need for a strong military able to oppose the Asiatics. Possibly, however, the ethnic name might refer to mercenaries of Levantine background in Pharaonic service, in which domestic political aspects are connected with the pharaonic military.

The king seems to have taken more interest in Nubia - specifically Batn el-Hagar, south of the Second Cataract - than in the Levant; the former is studied in the next chapter (p. 13-51). From a non-standard formulation in the king's nomenclature it is deduced that he seized (iTi) a stretch of land which previously belonged to the iwntyw. This must be the region of the Island of Sai, Sedeinga, and Soleb, where the king's building of temples was concentrated. Evidence from scenes and texts in the Soleb temple is discussed. A study of the text concerning the jubilee (see AEB 1973.0681 = OEB 16873), given in translation with philological comments, leads to the conclusion that there were two distinct stages of construction and that the temple's decoration stretched over even more phases. It is likely that the temple was constructed specifically for the cult of the deified Amenhotep III. The Nubian campaign reported on a stela at Semna by his Viceroy of Kush Merymose (year 5; see Urk. IV, 1659,5 - 1661,5) is translated and commented on. On the basis of this it is argued that the temples at Sedeinga and Soleb seem primarily political expressions and that their construction is associated with regional political processes, that is, a tax rebellion. After the quelling of the political opposition, the political status of Upper Nubia south of the Second Cataract was changed from autonomously governed areas with "free" people into real provinces under Pharaonic rule, with limited rights for the people. In political terms it was likely that the Soleb temple reflects a conception of Upper Nubia as personal property of Amenhotep III and Queen Teye. The temple is an expression of the placement of the region under the king, whose authority over it is conceived as eternal, explaining his divine status. The move was probably influenced by the politico-religious position of Sesostris III in Lower Nubia.

The third problem is the deification of Amenhotep III in connection with the Nubian crowns (p. 52-69). Soleb is the only place where the king is depicted during his lifetime receiving worship as Lord of Ta-Seti (Nubia). The parallel with Sesostris III is only partial, the deified Amenhotep III having two special features: a twisted horn around his ear and an elaborate headdress. The occurrence of the horn with other New Kingdom pharaohs from Tuthmosis III up to Ramses II is surveyed. From Amenhotep III onwards the curved horn was associated with Nubia; it reappears after about 600 years as the headdress of the Kushite rulers. The curved ram-horn is a symbol of the religio-political dominance in the Upper-Nile region of the Sudan. Tuthmosis III and his successors, including Amenhotep III, wear not only the curved horns, but also a complicated composite crown, which occurs only in this context. In principle they belong together as symbols of authority in the Kushite region.

The last subject studied is the building activities of the king at Thebes (p. 70-108). At Karnak he made a coherent effort to expand the cult of Amun and its temple into a multifaceted, but integrated, religious unit, being at the centre of three satellite cults of Mut, Khonsu, and Montu. The building of the Malkata Palace in his year 30 and the Luxor temple, a sanctuary featuring Amun, are directly connected. The author thinks of a potential health hazard in the Theban area to explain the king's move away from the population centre of Thebes-East, and considers the decoration of the Luxor temple in the light of this thesis of a health emergency devastating the area or all of Egypt. The inclusion of the divine birth scenes associates the king directly and most closely with Amun, in order to enhance the desired protection by the god. Also the many Sakhmet statues might be seen as the defense against a plague, and the king's tomb in the West Valley (KV 22) is at distance from the others. The surprisingly small number of tombs of high officials from his reign at Thebes may well be connected with the move of the king to Thebes late in his reign, some form of plague being a possible motive for this.

Arielle P. Kozloff / Betsy M. Bryan [Eds] : Egypt's Dazzling Sun - Amenhotep III And His World. - [With Lawrence M. Berman and an essay by Elisabeth Delange]. - Cleveland, OH : Cleveland Museum of Art, 1992. - ISBN : 0940717166 ; 0940717174. - XXIV, 476 p. :
OEB : This is the catalogue to the exhibition which was on show in The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, the Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, and the Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris in 1992-3. After a general introduction on the world of Amenhotep III follow annotated essays. Chapter 1 is a review of two centuries of scholarly and archaeological pursuit of the king. In Chapter 2 the history of the reign is sketched, with sections on his family, his sed-festivals, his officials and administration, and the international relations. Beginning with Chapter 3, on the large commemorative scarabs of the king (cat. nos. 1-2), the objects of the exhibition are integrated with full description, data and bibliography in the chapters, which open with an essay on the theme of Chapter 4 is concerned with the temples and their decoration (El-Kab, the Theban temples at Luxor, Kom el-Hetan and Karnak, Athribis in the Delta, and Soleb and Sedeinga in Nubia) and their decoration (nos. 3-4). An extensive Chapter 5 is devoted to the royal and divine statuary (nos. 6-19): statue types, among which a quartzite statue of the king on a sledge from the Luxor Temple cachette; the mortuary temple as a setting for statuary used as ritual narration; statue production, the stone material in relation to the statuary; royal statuary proportions. Chapter 6 describes small-scale royal representations (nos. 20-29), mostly statuettes. Another chapter on statuary is Chapter 7 on royal and divine images in animal form (nos. 30-36), which comprise a Soleb lion, a Sakhmet statue, a sphinx, a ram and a seated baboon. Chapter 8 on the private statuary is extensive (nos. 37-51). Paintings and relief sculpture from tomb decoration are the subject of Chapter 9; it comprises decoration from the Valley of the Kings and the tombs of the nobles, with special attention to some masterpieces and the grand tombs from the end of the reign (nos. 52-60). Chapter 10, on funerary equipment, comprises coffins (that of Henutwedjebu, singer of Amun with the texts translated) and sarcophagi, a canopic jar and chest, and shabtis (nos. 61-71). A selection of objects is described in Chapter 11 on ritual implements and related statuettes (nos. 72-90): many spoons, some counterweights, a statuette of a young girl carrying a jar, a comb. Glass vessels are studied in Chapter 12 (nos. 91-99). Chapter 13 deals with moulded and carved vessels and figurines (nos. 100-113): eyepaint tubes, ointment jars, wine containers, faience decorated bowls etc. Chapter 14 is devoted to theme of animals in amulets, weights and implements (nos. 114-122). The last Chapter 15 is concerned with jewellery (nos. 123-136): carved gems, the endpiece of a necklace of the king, rings etc.

Bibliography and an appendix with tables containing measurement data of various statue types and of the facial proportions at the end.

Greetings, Lutz.
Ägyptologie Forum (German)
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PostPosted: Sun Dec 10, 2017 5:04 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Chubb, Mary, Nefertiti Lived Here, Geoffrey Blass, 1954.

Martin, G. A Bibliography of the Amarna Period: The Reigns of Akhenaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamun, and Ay (c. 1350-1321 BC), Kegan Paul International, 1991.
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PostPosted: Sun Dec 10, 2017 8:53 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Akhenaten and the Religion of Light, Erik Hornung, 1995 in German, English edition widely available from Cornell University Press ISBN 978-0-8014-8725-5

The Boy Behind the Mask - Meeting the real Tutankhamun, Charlotte Booth, 2007, Oneworld Publications ISBN 978-1-85168-544-8
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