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First Intermediate Period

 
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Montuhotep88
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 25, 2018 4:46 pm    Post subject: First Intermediate Period Reply with quote

I've spent most of my time recently on the Second Intermediate Period (as part of a chronological study to compose my own timeline of Pharaonic history... which I eventually realized was not different enough from the timeline presented in the HdO #83 "Ancient Egyptian Chronology" to be worth continuing to compile, but at least it serves as a support to that one in my mind), as well as some on the Third Intermediate Period...

...but I've come to the conclusion that not much at all has been written, at least in terms of a general synthesis, on the First Intermediate Period (and in particular on the 'Herakleopolitan' kings).

Apart from the forthcoming book by Miroslav Barta (Analyzing Collapse: The Rise and Fall of the Old Kingdom), which I anticipate will be relevant, is there something else out there I'm overlooking? Or is it found scattered in this and that excavation reports?
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Montuhotep88
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PostPosted: Wed Nov 28, 2018 8:04 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Well, here's my "book report" on what I have been able to find. Such as it is... Informally...

-----------------------------
First Intermediate Period: Dynasties “IX” and “X”

Five stages of First Intermediate Period:
(1) Disintegration of Memphite regime after Pepy II
(2) Bloodshed/anarchy from collapse of monarchy and ambition of nome rulers
(3) Rise of Heracleopolitan nome rulers (in reign of Horus Demedjtawy (=Wadjkare?)
(4) Rise in importance and power of Thebes
(5) Civil war between Heracleopolitans and Thebans; Theban victory

Dynasty VII and VIII together: ~25 years (Gardiner) or 40-50 years (Smith)

18 (or 19) kings of Heracleopolis, total ~120 to 185 years, including:
Horus Meryibtawy Khety (“Akhtoy”) =Meryibre, first to assume royal titulary
(unknown) – probably controlled only Middle Egypt
Neferkare (=”Kaneferre”?) * -- attested in tomb of Anhtifi at Mo’alla
Nebkaure Khety (or Wahkare Khety?) – attested in the Delta
(break between first four kings and rest occurred in antiquity **)
Meryhathor (? Conjectural) – attested in Middle Egypt
Neferkare (? =Meryhathor?)
(unnamed others)
Imhotep – Possible Dyn. VII/VIII or X—attested in Wadi Hammamat inscription
Ity – attested in Wadi Hammamat inscription, seems to have begin pyramid (Saqqara?)
Wahkare Khety (or Nebkaure Kehety?) – fighting w/ Thebes in Thinite nome
Merikare – influence extended at least to Asyut
(unknown) (a Neferkare?) – final Heracleopolitan ruler, defeated by Montuhotep II

Administrative seat at Memphis, burials likely at Saqqara (Merikare perhaps buried near Teti’s pyramid); royal seat at either Heracleopolis or Memphis. Allied with/supported by Asyut and Hierakonpolis for at least part of period.

Nebkaure (Khety) named in Tale of the Eloquent Peasant.
Merikare referred to in Instructions for Merikare. Wahkare Khety usually attributed as author for reasons that are unclear. Merikare is attested to have had a pyramid at Saqqara—possibly “Headless Pyramid” (L.XXIX) though this is disputed.

* According to Franke, Heracleopolitan rulers’ names may have been ‘metathesized’ as Re-ka-nefer, Re-ib-meri, Re-ka-meri, etc.
** perhaps because page header slavishly copied onto another page in the middle

Turin King List (after Ryholt):

5.18 (? Header line ?)
5.19 Khety (I)
5.20 Neferkare
5.21 Khety (II)
5.22 Senen…
5.23 Khety (III)
5.24 Mer… Khety (IV)
5.25 Shed…y
5.26 H…
5.27 (??)
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07
6.08
6.09
6.10 Summation line, “18 kings”

The hypothesized break after the fourth king (Senen…?) does not seem to have occurred yet by the time of the Turin list’s composition.

Both of Manetho’s “IX” and “X” reported with 18 kings through duplication of the summation line whose Vorlage is clearly TC 6.10 or something very similar.


References consulted:

Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs.
Smith, CAH3 Old Kingdom.
Hayes, CAH3 Middle Kingdom.
Franke, “First Intermediate Period” in Redford (ed.) Oxford Encyclopedia.
Seidlmayer, “First Intermediate Period” in Shaw (ed.) Oxford History.
Grimal, History of Ancient Egypt.
Rice, Who’s Who in Ancient Egypt.
Baker, Encyclopedia of Egyptian Pharaohs.

------------------------------
The "Lamentation" literature is usually supposed to refer to conditions in the First Intermediate Period but this is far from proven; and in any case, there's little or nothing of real use in terms of historical reconstruction.
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Montuhotep88
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 01, 2018 9:28 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I have downloaded an article (Journal of Egyptian History 9, 2016) by Arkadiy Demidchik challenging the usual interpretation of Merikare as the last or penultimate Heracleopolitan ruler, and placing him sixth in line instead. Haven't got through the article yet, but looks interesting...
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Lutz
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PostPosted: Sun Dec 02, 2018 1:07 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Maybe of interest, a PhD with an extensive bibliography at the end ...

Alicia Daneri de Rodrigo : Las dinastías VII-VIII y el período Heracleopolitano en Egipto - Problemas de reconstrucción histórica de una época de crisis. - [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Faculdad de Filosofia y Letras, PhD, 1991]

Greetings, Lutz.
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Lutz
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Location: Berlin, Germany

PostPosted: Sun Dec 02, 2018 1:21 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

John Romer : A History of Ancient Egypt 2 - From the Great Pyramid to the Fall of the Middle Kingdom. - Milton Keynes, 2017. - 672 p.

Hratch Papazian : The State of Egypt in the Eighth Dynasty. - In: Towards a New History for the Egyptian Old Kingdom - Perspectives on the Pyramid Age. - [Harvard Egyptological Studies 1]. - Leiden / Boston, 2016. - pp. 393-428.

John Gee : Did the Old Kingdom Collapse?. - In: Towards a New History for the Egyptian Old Kingdom - Perspectives on the Pyramid Age. - [Harvard Egyptological Studies 1]. - Leiden / Boston, 2016. - pp. 60-75.

Joanna Aksamit : The Necropolis at Tell Edfu - An Overview. - In: Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean - PAM 20. - Warsaw, 2011. - pp. 379-386.

Yannis Gourdon : Les gouverneurs de l'oasis de Dakhla à la fin de l'Ancien Empire. - In: Bulletin de l'Instut Français d'Archéologie Orientale - BIFAO 114. - Le Caire, 2014. - pp. 201-225.

Edward Brovarski : Overseers of Upper Egypt in the Old to Middle Kingdoms. Part 1. - In: Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde - ZÄS 140.2. - Berlin, 2013. - pp. 91-111.

Edward Brovarski : Overseers of Upper Egypt in the Old to Middle Kingdoms, Part 2 - Dossiers. - In: Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde - ZÄS 141. - 2015. - pp. 24-35.

Roland Enmarch : Writing in the 'Mansion of Gold'- Texts from the Hatnub quarries. - In: Egyptian Archaeology - The Bulletin of the Egypt Exploration Society 47. - London, 2015. - pp. 10-12.

Laure Pantalacci : Noms royaux nouvellement attestés à Balat. - In: Aere perennius - Mélanges égyptologiques en l’honneur de Pascal Vernus. - [Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 242]. - Leuven / Paris / Bristol, 2016. - pp. 521-529.

Melanie Pitkin : The Distribution and Dating of Egyptian False Doors and Funerary Stelae of the First Intermediate Period - A Preliminary Analysis. - In: Proceedings of the Fiteenth Annual Symposium University College London & King's College London 2014. - [Current Research in Egyptology - CRE 15]. - Oxford / Philadelphia, 2015. - pp. 261-277.

Dietrich Raue : Königsbekannte - Inschriften zur 'anderen' Ersten Zwischenzeit im Norden Ägyptens. - In: Kulturelle Kohärenz durch Prestige - Münchener Studien zur Alten Welt 10. - München, 2014. - pp. 179-200.

Marcelo Campagno : Patronage and Other Logics of Social Organization in Ancient Egypt during the Illrd Millennium BCE. - In: Journal of Egyptian History - JEgH 7. - Leiden, 2014. - pp. 1-33.

Claudia Näser : Structures and Realities of Egyptian-Nubian Interactions from the Late Old Kingdom to the Early New Kingdom. - In: The First Cataract of the Nile. One Region - Diverse Perspectives. - [Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Abteilung Kairo, Sonderschriften - DAIKS 36]. - 2013. - pp. 135-148.

Richard Bussmann : Die Provinztempel Ägyptens von der 0. bis zur 11. Dynastie - Archäologie und Geschichte einer gesellschaftlichen Institution zwischen Residenz und Provinz. - [Probleme der Ägyptologie 30]. - Leiden / Boston : Brill, 2010. - 1053 p.

Shih-Wei Hsu : The Development of Ancient Egyptian Royal Inscriptions. - In: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology - JEA 98. - London, 2012. - pp. 269-283.

Christian Knoblauch : The Memphite area in the late First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom. - In: Ancient Memphis, 'Enduring is the Perfection' - Proceedings of the International Conference held at Macquarie University, Sydney on August 14-15, 2008. - [Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta - OLA 214]. - Leuven, 2012. - pp. 267-278.

Melanie Pitkin : Invisible History - The First Intermediate Period in United Kingdom (UK) Museum Exhibitions. - In: Egyptology in Australia and New Zealand 2009 - Proceedings of the Conference Held in Melbourne, September 4th - 6th. - [British Archaeological Reports - BARIS 2355]. - Oxford, 2012. - pp. 125-131.

Henry George Fischer : Egyptian Women of the Old Kingdom and of the Heracleopolitan Period. - New York, 1989. - VIII, 52 pp, Pl.

Mahmoud El-Khadragy : The Nomarchs of Asyut During the First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom. - In: Seven Seasons at Asyut - First Results of the Egyptian-German Cooperation in Archaeological Fieldwork. - [Proceedings of an International Conference at the University of Sohag, 10th - 11th of October, 2009]. - [The Asyut Project - AP 2]. - Wiesbaden, 2012. - pp. 31-46.

O.D. Berlev : The Eleventh Dynasty in the Dynastic History of Egypt. - In: Studies Presented to Hans Jakob Polotsky. - East Gloucester (Mass.), 1981. - pp. 361-377.

Farouk Gomaà : Ägypten während der Ersten Zwischenzeit. - [Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients. Reihe B (Geisteswissenschaften) - 27]. - Wiesbaden, 1980. - VIII, 170 p., 5 Maps.

Edward Brovarski : The Hare and Oryx Nomes in the First Intermediate Period and Early Middle Kingdom. - In: Egyptian Culture and Society - Studies in Honour of Naguib Kanawati 1. - [Supplément aux Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte, Cahier - CASAE 38.1]. - 2010. - pp. 31-85.

Hans Goedicke : Zur Chronologie der sogenannten 'Ersten Zwischenzeit'. - In: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft - ZDMG 112 (NF 37, 1962). - 1963. - pp. 239-254.

Christoffer Theis : Die Pyramiden der Ersten Zwischenzeit - Nach philologischen und archäologischen Quellen. - In: Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur - SAK 39. - Hamburg, 2010. - pp. 321-339.

Harco Willems : The First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom. - In: A Companion to Ancient Egypt. - Oxford, 2010. - pp. 81-100.

Jürgen von Beckerath : The Date of the End of the Old Kingdom of Egypt. - In: Journal of Near Eastern Studies - JNES 21. - Chicago, 1962. - pp. 140-147.

Jürgen Settgast : Materialien zur Ersten Zwischenzeit I. - In: Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo - MDAIK 19. - Mainz, 1963. - 7-15.

Winfried Barta : Bemerkungen zur Chronologie der 6. bis. 11. Dynastie. - In: Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde - ZÄS 108. - 1981. - pp. 23-33.

Stephan Johannes Seidlmayer : Zwei Anmerkungen zur Dynastie der
Herakleopoliten
. - In: Göttinger Miszellen - GM 157. - 1997. - pp. 81-90.

Stephan Johannes Seidlmayer : The Relative Chronology of the First Intermediate Period. - In: Ancient Egyptian Chronology. - Leiden / Boston, 2006. - pp. 159-167.
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