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The Priests of Amun

 
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anneke
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 23, 2005 3:29 pm    Post subject: The Priests of Amun Reply with quote

Looking at the statues listed in the
Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and Paintings
By Jaromir Malek, Diana Magee and Elizabeth Miles
there are an amazing number of statues of individuals related to the temple of Amun.

There are a fair number of statues of the high priests of Amun (First Prophet):
From the 18th dynasty:
Hepusoneb H. pw-snb (Hatshepsut), Menkheperresonb Mn-h.pr-r i-snb (Tuthmosis III),
Mery Mrjj (Amenophis II), Meryptah Mrjj-pth.(Amenophis III),
Nebwa Nb-w i , First prophet of Amun-Re (Haremhab)

From the 19th dynasty and later:
Unnufer Wnn-nfr (Ramesses II), Paser P3-sr (Ramesses II), Ramose R i-ms (Dyn. XIX), Minmosi Mnw-msw (end of Dyn. XIX or early Dyn.XX), Bekenkhons B3k-n-h.nsw (Setnakht to Ramesses III) (several statues), Paankh P3- inh. (Ramesses XI or later)

There are three that seem worth mentioning:
Sennufer Sn(.j)-nfr , was First prophet of Amun in Khentnufer. I do not known if this is another position than the general First Prophet (i.e. High Priest) of Amun mentioned as the title for the other individuals?
He was also Chief steward of the King (Amenhotep III), Overseer of prophets of Min lord of Ipu and of Ptah foremost of (Tje)nent, etc. It seems that Sennufer must have been an extremely influential individual. He held a high post in the priesthood of Amun, and was involved with the priesthood of Ptah and Min as well! Plus as steward to the King, he would have easy access to the King.

I find it very interesting that Nebwa, who was First Prophet under Horemheb, was not just high priest of Amun, but of Amun-Re. None of the other priests had their title written like this. Accident of transliteration, or is there something more subtle going on?
On another statue it is mentioned that Nebwa was First prophet of Amun-Re of P3-jw (Tell el-Balamûn) and his wife Mutnefert(t) Mwt-nfr(t) was a Songstress of Amun of P3-jw,. Is this another case similar to Sennufer, where there is another temple involved?


Unnufer Wnn-nfr, the High Priest of Amun under Ramses II has several relatives mentioned on his statues. His wife was Esi (Aset / Isis) 3st , who was Chief of the harîm of Amun. His son Amenmonet dedicated some of the statues to his father, and he was a fairly well-connected individual himself. Amenemonet was Chief of the Medjay, Overseer of works on the monuments of His Majesty etc.
It is also mentioned that Unnufer (Wennefer) was a son of Minhotep Mnw-h.tp and Maya Mj3.


There are a handful of statues of the other priests mentioned:
Mahu Mh. , was Second prophet of Amun, (Tuthmosis III to Amenophis II)
Amenemhet Jmn-m-h. 3t was Third prophet of Amun, etc. ,probably during the reign of Amenhotep III
There is mention of two Prophets of Amun (no mention of rank, so they could be 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th Prophet of Amun). They are Nekhy (?) Nh.jj(?) (?) from the 18th dynasty and Khaemopet H. i-m-jpt of the 20th dynasty.

Plus a handful of wab-priests, a lector priest and two acolytes. I don't know what that last title means.
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Sesen
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PostPosted: Sun Apr 24, 2005 1:38 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Anneke wrote:
Quote:
Sennufer Sn(.j)-nfr , was First prophet of Amun in Khentnufer. I do not known if this is another position than the general First Prophet (i.e. High Priest) of Amun mentioned as the title for the other individuals?
He was also Chief steward of the King (Amenhotep III), Overseer of prophets of Min lord of Ipu and of Ptah foremost of (Tje)nent, etc. It seems that Sennufer must have been an extremely influential individual. He held a high post in the priesthood of Amun, and was involved with the priesthood of Ptah and Min as well! Plus as steward to the King, he would have easy access to the King.



Smile I'm sure we discussed this man a while back - I've been out of the loop for so long that I can't for the life of me remember if he maybe the same Sennefer (Mayor of Thebes) who had tomb TT 96 and probably KV 42? The connection to Min at Akhmin I remember us talking about in relation to Yuya and Tuya.
This statue of Sennufer doesn't mention any family I suppose?

The mention of Ptah foremost of (Tje)nent, is interesting as all I could find after a quick Google was mention of Tjenent as part of a name - is it a place or a god I wonder?

for example: ... with text mentioning Montu and Rattaui-Tjenent in Hermonthis, sandstone, ... daughter of Sit-tjenent S3t-tnnt (mother), black stone, probably Dyn. ...

or ... Ka-em-tjenent, of Izezi-ankh

Reminds me of a name Osiris took, Khenty Imentiu, foremost of the westerners.

Mayor Sennefer was also Chancellor (for Amenhotep II), I wonder if this title is similar or the same as Chief Steward?

Nebwa is the only first prophet of Amun I have on my list after May, who was dismissed after Yr4 of Akhenaten. Nothing for Tutankhamun or Aye. Were they a bit slow in bringing back this role or (far more likely) I just have'nt found a name yet Wink
There is Yii (or Aye) as second prophet during Aye's rule.
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I enter as a hawk, I come out as a benu bird in the morning.-- Pert em-Hru, ch. 13
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anneke
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PostPosted: Sun Apr 24, 2005 2:19 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Sesen wrote:

Smile I'm sure we discussed this man a while back - I've been out of the loop for so long that I can't for the life of me remember if he maybe the same Sennefer (Mayor of Thebes) who had tomb TT 96 and probably KV 42? The connection to Min at Akhmin I remember us talking about in relation to Yuya and Tuya.
This statue of Sennufer doesn't mention any family I suppose?


That discussion did pass through my mind as I was looking at these names. Smile He is a singularly important individual.
Your comment about the fact that Sennefer had a daughter called Muttuy who was featured rather prominently in his tomb (much more so than his other daughters) combined with the fact that it seems that Tuya, wife of Yuya and mother of Tiye, was named Muttuy on a statue attributed to her is intriguing. It would really make sense I think to have Tuya come from a very prominent family.

No, I didn't see any mention of family members of Sennefer on the statue.

Sesen wrote:
Mayor Sennefer was also Chancellor (for Amenhotep II), I wonder if this title is similar or the same as Chief Steward?

That's possible. I really don't know what either of these titles really means. I don't really know what a "job description" for such a person would be.

Sesen wrote:
Nebwa is the only first prophet of Amun I have on my list after May, who was dismissed after Yr4 of Akhenaten. Nothing for Tutankhamun or Aye. Were they a bit slow in bringing back this role or (far more likely) I just have'nt found a name yet Wink
There is Yii (or Aye) as second prophet during Aye's rule.

I have been looking through my sources and compiling lists of the nobles who served under the various pharaohs. These people played impportant roles, and I find it quite interesting to see the different individuals who made thier mark.

I have not seen any mention of a First Prophet of Amun under Tutankhamen. I wonder if it was Nebwa. Although I'm still puzzled by the specific mention of "Amun-Re of Paju". That makes it sound like some temple other than the one at Thebes.

I did find mention of a high priest of Ptah under Tutankhamen, so I would expect there to have been a high priest of Amun as well (also because he was so adamant about restoring the temples in his declarations.)

More Priests are known, but I just listed the ones mentioned on the Griffith Institute site Smile
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PostPosted: Sun Apr 24, 2005 5:49 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

The Theben tomb TT 96 of Sennefer's is truely beautiful. Its easy to imagine and speculate that Tuya came from this family, and its frustrating that we will probably never know for sure Confused

I've been looking for Paju (as in Amun Re of Paju) and its modern name is Tell el-Balamoun. This town was the capital of the 17th nome of Lower Egypt - its in the Northern part of the Delta. Going by my maps its not far from the Damietta branch of the Nile
Google threw up this bibliography. Seems the area has been looked over for most of last century.
So I guess Nebwa was a northerner, a first prophet of one of the provincial town temples to Amen Re. His father was Huy and his mother Mutnofret a Songstress of Amun in Paju.
An interesting character Smile
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I enter as a hawk, I come out as a benu bird in the morning.-- Pert em-Hru, ch. 13
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anneke
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PostPosted: Mon Apr 25, 2005 11:22 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I did find this report:
THEBAN TOMBS PUBLICATION PROJECT:
TOMBS NO. 72 (RÂY) AND 121 (AHMOSE)
Season Winter 1990
http://www.cofc.edu/~piccione/t2p2/1990report.html


Titles of Ray:

1. Hm-nTr tpy n Imn m Hw.t Hnq.t-anx
First Prophet of Amun in Hw.t HnK.t-anx (the mortuary temple of Tuthmosis III)
2. Hm-nTr tpy n Mn-xpr-ra
First Prophet of Menkheperre(5)
3. Hm-nTr tpy (n) Hw.t-Hr Hry.t ib Hnq.t-anx
First Prophet of Hathor who resides in Hnq.t-anx
4. Hm-nTr tpy n Imn m Dsr-st
First Prophet of Amun in Dsr-st (the Eighteenth Dynasty temple at Medinet Habu)
5. Hm-nTr tpy n Imn m Dsr-Axt
First Prophet of Amun in Dsr-Axt (the temple of Tuthmosis III at Deir el-Bahari)
6. Hm-nTr tpy n Imn m Mn-(i)st
First Prophet of Amun in Mn-(i)st (the temple of Amenhotep I and Ahmose-Nefertari at Gurna)
7. Hm-nTr tpy imy-r pr-nbw Hw.t Imn
First Prophet and Overseer of the House of Gold of the Temple of Amun

Thus, Rây holds seven major titles in four of the most important temples in Western Thebes at that time (!), as well as the powerful position of Overseer of the Treasury of Amun. In addition, texts in the tomb identify his brothers as:


Hm-nTr tpy n Imn [. . .]
First Prophet of Amun, [. . .]

Hm-nTr tpy n Imn Nb-Imn
First Prophet of Amun, Nebamun

Xry-Hb tpy n Imn Imn-Htp
First Lector Priest of Amun, Amenhotep

Rây identifies his father as Ahmose, the Hm-nTr [tpy] n Imn m Hw.t Hnq.t-anx, "the [First] Prophet of Amun in the Temple of Hnq.t-anx," and his mother as Rây, the Xkr.t-nswt, "king's concubine."

So the priesthood of Amun was pretty tightly controlled by pretty much one family during the reign of Thutmosis III.
I wonder if they were related to the previous HP of A, Hapuseneb from Hatshepsut's reign?

Piccone suggests royal ties, but I'm not sure where he gets that from.

Are these some of the seeds of the Aten 'revolution', i.e. religious powerplay?
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