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What happened to the mortuary temples of the old kings?

 
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anneke
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PostPosted: Fri Apr 29, 2005 2:36 am    Post subject: What happened to the mortuary temples of the old kings? Reply with quote

I was reading a description of an interesting thomb in Thebes when this question presented itself.
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Theban tomb 33 belongs to Khons, also called Ta.

His tomb dates to the time of Ramses II, but he and his family stretch over quite a long time period.
Khons’ bother is mentioned in his tomb and he is a man by the name of Usermontu. He was a Vizier. The only Vizier by the name of Usermontu actually served under Tutankhamen. This must mean that Khons must have also overlapped with Tutankhamen.

Quite few family members are mentioned with respect to the brothers Khons and Usermontu:

Nebneshyt, standard bearer of the great regiment of Nebmaatre, is Khonsu’s grandfather

Neferhotep and Tausert are the parents of Khonsu.

Raia, Nay, Huy, Montuhotep are further brothers of Khonsu. (Besides Usermontu)

A sister Tentiunyt is mentioned

Khonsu has wives named Ruia and Mutiay and possibly another wife named Maay.

He has sons named Huy and Khaemwaset, and daughters named Iament and Uiay

Many of the men in the family are lector priests of Montu and the women serve as chantresses of Montu.
Makes one wonder what happened to the family during the reign of Akhenaten. The grandfather was apparently in the service of Nebmaatre, i.e. Amenhotep III.
It’s hard to tell when Usermontu and Khons would have been of an age to take on serious positions. Usermontu must have done something else before he became Vizier, so he may have served under Akhenaten. He probably would have gone under a different name. My guess would be that being named after Montu would not go over well in the Aten period.
Similarly I wonder if Khons was known under a different name. Khonsu was the son of Amen and Mut if I remember correctly.

Khonsu has a series of interesting positions:
1. high priest of king Thutmose III
2. director of the lifestock of Menkheperure (Tuthmosis IV)
3. and later he was apparently promoted to First Prophet of Montu, Lord of Tod (Djerty)

Would the temples of Tuthmosis III and IV have been kept open under the reign of Akhenaten? I have never read about his take on the temples dedicated to his ancestors.
These temples were also dedicated to the gods of Egypt, but on the other hand they were his ancestors…
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Osiris II
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PostPosted: Fri Apr 29, 2005 2:55 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I understood that the only god he really, really pursued actively was Amun, going so far as to alter inscriptions of his father's name because it contained the name of the god. The other temples were more or less just ignored, stipped of their riches--which went to Aten--closed and their priesthood dis-assembled. I would assume because, as you say, the mortuary temples were built to honor his ancestors, Akhenaten would, in effect, leave them alone.
It's hard to imagine, but do you have any concept of the wealth that was taken from Amun alone? Pharaoh's had given it "gifts" for centuries. The temple was panelled in gold! (in the Holy of Holies)
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anneke
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PostPosted: Fri Apr 29, 2005 3:45 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Osiris wrote:
I understood that the only god he really, really pursued actively was Amun, going so far as to alter inscriptions of his father's name because it contained the name of the god. The other temples were more or less just ignored, stipped of their riches--which went to Aten--closed and their priesthood dis-assembled. I would assume because, as you say, the mortuary temples were built to honor his ancestors, Akhenaten would, in effect, leave them alone.

It does seem like Amun bore the brunt of the persecution.
The earlier kings were rather closely linked to Amen from what I remember. That's why I started to wonder.

Osiris wrote:
It's hard to imagine, but do you have any concept of the wealth that was taken from Amun alone? Pharaoh's had given it "gifts" for centuries. The temple was panelled in gold! (in the Holy of Holies)

Pretty mind blowing when you think of it, isn't it?
If you just read the offerings that say Hatshepsut and Tuthmosis III made to the temples of Amun, then they alone did quite a bit to enrich the temples.
Hatshepsut dedicated a lot of her trade "stuff" from Punt to the temple of Amen, and Tuthmosis III is shown several times dedicated tributes he received from the North and the South to Amen.

I get the impression that the god Re-Harakhty was left alone, and there is mention of a priest (Pawah?) from the temple of Re in heliopolis. So Akhenaten did not go after that god. Which makes sense, since Re and Aten were rather closely related.

It is interesting though that Amen and Re were also closely related, but Amen was definitely persecuted.

I don't have any sense of what happened to the temple of Ptah.
Amenhotep had installed his eldest son Crown Prince as High Priest of Ptah. But I can't find much reference to Ptah during the Amarna period.
I did notice that a stela exists of an official named Ptahmes. The stela dates to the period after yr 9 of Akhenaten, and shows Ptahmes with his son Paatenemheb and daughter Meryt. So apparently using the name of Ptah during that time period was acceptable.
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 12:12 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
It is interesting though that Amen and Re were also closely related, but Amen was definitely persecuted.


There is mention of Amun all the way back to the Pyramid Texts, but he really didn't gain popularity until the time of the Middle Kingdom. That's when he started to supplant Montu, the original popular deity of the Theban region. And of course Amun was all the rage in the New Kingdom. But Re is certainly older than he, and Re had always been indicative of nobility and royalty--a king's god. It was a practical as well as religious measure to combine the two into the powerful Amun-Re. As we have seen, Akhenaten did not persecute deities related to the sun (e.g., Re and Re-Horakhty) because he could identify them with his beloved Aten. But Amun was not so fortunate, so Amun-Re was torn asunder to leave only Re intact...until Atenism crumbled, that is.

Quote:
So apparently using the name of Ptah during that time period was acceptable.


Secluded in his pleasure palace in Akhetaten, I doubt Akhenaten and his court could efficiently wipe out worship of all the old gods during the Amarna Period. Outside Akhetaten, the Aten was probably a strange and obscure deity whose worship was not understood, at least not as Akhenaten practiced that worship. He tried to wipe out worship of the old gods, but I'm sure that he was never entirely successful. A god as ancient and powerful as Ptah was hard to suppress and I'll bet he was still worshiped in the Memphite region, if in a bit of a subdued state. As powerful as pharaoh was, one man could not have affected such control over his kingdom. I'm willing to bet that outside Akhetaten, people were quite apathetic about Akhenaten and his religion.
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anneke
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 10:33 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

kmt_sesh wrote:

Secluded in his pleasure palace in Akhetaten, I doubt Akhenaten and his court could efficiently wipe out worship of all the old gods during the Amarna Period. Outside Akhetaten, the Aten was probably a strange and obscure deity whose worship was not understood, at least not as Akhenaten practiced that worship. He tried to wipe out worship of the old gods, but I'm sure that he was never entirely successful. A god as ancient and powerful as Ptah was hard to suppress and I'll bet he was still worshiped in the Memphite region, if in a bit of a subdued state. As powerful as pharaoh was, one man could not have affected such control over his kingdom. I'm willing to bet that outside Akhetaten, people were quite apathetic about Akhenaten and his religion.


Good point Very Happy.
I somehow thought that Ptahmay's stela was from Amarna, but after your comment I checked and it was likely from the Memphis area.

And your right, I doubt the average Joe (or average Hotep or Mose in this case) was very enthusiastic about the Aten.

Ptahmay's stela just keeps sticking in my mind because it also mentions a son called Paatenemheb and some person's son named (Pa)Ramessu.
Interesting combo, no?

Getting back to the temples of the ancestors:
I did notice the following:

Any True king’s scribe, scribe of the offering table of the Lord of the Two Lands, Scribe of the Aten’s offering table on behalf of the Aten in the house of Aten in Akhet-Aten, Steward of the House of Aakheprure [Amenhotep II]

Amenhotep II was definitely dead, and this individual must have then served in some mortuary temple?

There is also:
Ramose Scribe of Recruits, General of the Lord of the Two Lands, the king’s scribe, Steward of the house of Nebmaatre (Amenhotep III)

This either implies a co-regency I think or that Ramose actually served in the mortuary temple of Amenhotep III?
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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 11:02 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I would guess that Any's title of Steward of the House of Aakheprure was either (1) no longer meant to be a current title but simply an accolade to show an important post he had held (and important it certainly was!) or (2) that he continued such service in the mortuary temple rites of Amunhotep II.

Ramose is harder to pin down. It could easily be either of the theories you present. Having held such a high post as Steward of the house of Nebmaatre, as Any had with Amunhotep II, it is probable that Ramose was given the opportunity to go on serving the great Amunhotep III in his mortuary temple.
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